Updating and backuping Virtual I/O Servers with NIM : Story of APARs IV46060, IV????? and IV?????

I recently had to find the best solution to update a bunch of Virtual I/O Server at a time. Since a couple of months I’m intensively using NIM new features such as DSM and my first thought was to use NIM to update all my Virtual I/O Servers. You’ve probably notice that a new operation exists in latest NIM version called “updateios“. With this new operation comes two new types, vios (a Virtual I/O Server machine) and ios_mksysb (a mksysb created by the backupios command on the Virtual I/O Server). I’m probably the only guy using this because at the time of writing this post the updateios command does not work. For IBMers who are reading this post I had the chance to work with french L3 Virtual I/O Server support on two PMRs (a big thanks to them for their skills and efficiency), you can have a look on it :

  • PMR 84369,664,706 : NIM updateios operation hanging on NIM master resulting in two APARs (IV?????; and IV?????) (these two APARs are still in validation at the time of writing).
  • PMR 84152,664,706 : NIM updateios problem with /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_updateios resulting in one APAR (IV46060) (http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?crawler=1&uid=isg1IV46060).

After a few weeks of work with the support we finally found two workarounds for these problems. This post will explain the solutions we found with the support. If you had one lesson to remember by reading this post keep this one : “Always subscribe to SWMA support because they are damn brillant”.

Defining Virtual I/O Server object

If you are reading this post I hope you’ve already read my post about NIM Less known features. If you have no time to read this one here is a reminder. Before running any operation on a Virtual I/O Server, you have to create management objects associated to it :

  • Create the HMC object :
  • # dpasswd -f foo  -U hscroot
    Password file is /etc/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/config/foo
    Password:
    Re-enter password:
    Password file created.
    # dkeyexch -f /etc/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/config/myhmc_passwd -I hmc -H myhmc
    OpenSSH_6.0p1, OpenSSL 0.9.8x 10 May 2012
    # nim -o define -t hmc -a if1="find_net myhmc 0" -a passwd_file=/etc/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/config/myhmc_passwd myhmc
    
  • Create the CEC object, I’m using in this example the nimquery command to find serial number and machine type :
  • # nimquery -a hmc=myhmc-p | grep ^CEC
    [..]
    CEC SERVER1 - 8202-E4B_6565655 :
    CEC SERVER2 - 8205-E6B_0606065 :
    [..]
    # nim -o define -t cec -a hw_type=8202 -a hw_model=E4B -a hw_serial=6565655 -a mgmt_source=myhmc SERVER1 
    
  • Created the vios object, I’m using in this example the nimquery command to find the identity field :
  • # nimquery -a cec=SERVER1 -p
    [..]
    LPAR my_vios - lpar_id 2 :
            allow_perf_collection = 1
            auto_start = 0
            curr_lpar_proc_compat_mode = POWER7
            curr_profile = my_vios
            default_profile = my_vios
            desired_lpar_proc_compat_mode = default
            logical_serial_num = 6565655
            lpar_avail_priority = 191
            lpar_env = vioserver
            lpar_id = 2
            lpar_keylock = norm
            msp = 1
            name = my_vios
            os_version = VIOS 2.2.2.1
            power_ctrl_lpar_ids = none
            redundant_err_path_reporting = 0
            resource_config = 1
            rmc_ipaddr = 10.10.20.107
            rmc_state = active
            shared_proc_pool_util_auth = 1
            state = Running
            time_ref = 0
            work_group_id = none
    [..]
    # nim -o define -t vios -a if1="1020-10-10-20-0-s24-net my_vios 0" -a mgmt_source="SERVER1" -a identity=2  my_vios
    
  • Check everything is ok by using lsnim command :
  • # lsnim -t hmc
    my_hmc      management       hmc
    # lsnim -t cec
    SERVER2     management       cec
    # lsnim -t vios
    my_vios           management       vios
    

Setup Virtual I/O Server as a nim client

Only a few people knows that a Virtual I/O Server can be a setup as a NIM Client. Remember that you never had to use oem_setup_env to perform administration tasks on Virtual I/O Server. To setup a Virtual I/O Server as a NIM client use a special command called remote_management as padmin. It’s the niminit command for a Virtual I/O Server. Keep in mind that the remote_management setup NIM client to use nimsh protocol (it’s important for the rest of this post.) :

  • You probably had to add NIM servers entries in your /etc/hosts file :
  • # hostmap -addr 10.10.20.140 -host my_nim1 my_nim1.lab.chmod666.org
    # hostmap -addr 10.10.20.141 -host my_nim2 my_nim2.lab.chmod666.org
    
  • Enable remote_management :
  • # remote_management -interface en0 my_nim1
    nimsh:2:wait:/usr/bin/startsrc -e "LIBPATH=/usr/lib" -g nimclient >/dev/console 2>&1
    0513-059 The nimsh Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 7340278.
    
  • If you have to disable remote_management use the disable option :
  • # remote_management -disable
    0513-044 The nimsh Subsystem was requested to stop.
    
  • Check nimsh is running :
  • # ps -ef | grep nimsh
        root 5767198 5963976   0   Aug 23      -  0:00 /usr/sbin/nimsh -s
    

Backuping Virtual I/O Server by creating an ios_mksysb resource.

Before updating the Virtual I/O Server create a ios_mksysb. Most PowerVM administrator are running a script from the Virtual I/O Server but you can now invoke the backupios command from the NIM server. You can now do this for all your Virtual I/O Server and store the ios_mksysb on the NIM server, much easier than running a command on the Virtual I/O Server and mounting an NFS share on it …. :

# nim -o define -t ios_mksysb -a source=my_vios -a location=/export/nim/mksysb/my_vios/my_vios-ios_mksysb  -a server=master -a mk_image=yes my_vios-ios_mksysb
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
                System Backup Image Space Information
              (Sizes are displayed in 1024-byte blocks.)
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
Required = 7316181 (7145 MB)    Available = 386230180 (377178 MB)


/tmp/7274624.mnt0/myvios-ios_mksysb  doesn't exist.

Creating /tmp/7274624.mnt0/myvios-ios_mksysb
Backup in progress.  This command can take a considerable amount of time
to complete, please be patient...


Creating information file (/image.data) for rootvg.

Creating list of files to back up.
....
Backing up 169631 files............
51526 of 169631 files (30%)..............................
155443 of 169631 files (91%)..

169631 of 169631 files (100%)
0512-038 savevg: Backup Completed Successfully.

While running this command you can have a look on the Virtual I/O Server. By “proctreeing” the nimsh process you can check that the backupios with mksysb flag command is running :

# proctree -a  9240678
1    /etc/init
   3342492    /usr/sbin/srcmstr
      5046448    /usr/sbin/nimsh -s
         10813570    /usr/sbin/nimsh -s
            6160534    /bin/ksh /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_nimpush /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/meth
               7274624    /bin/ksh /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_backupios -aserver=my_nim1 -al
                  9240678    /usr/ios/cli/ioscli backupios -file /tmp/7274624.mnt0/my_vios-ios_mksysb -mk
                     10158278    /bin/ksh /usr/bin/savevg -X -i -f /tmp/7274624.mnt0/my_vios-ios_mksysb rootv
                        8585348    /bin/ksh /usr/bin/savevg -X -i -f /tmp/7274624.mnt0/my_vios-ios_mksysb rootv
                           10223832    /usr/bin/sleep 10
                        9764964    /usr/bin/cat /tmp/mksysb.10158278/.archive.list.10158278
                        11337872    backbyname -i -q -v -Z -p -U -f /tmp/7274624.mnt0/my_vios-ios_mksysb

After the ios_mksysb creation you can check the source and the ioslevel of your backup :

# lsnim -l my_vios-ios_mksysb
my_vios-ios_mksysb:
   class         = resources
   type          = ios_mksysb
   arch          = power
   Rstate        = ready for use
   prev_state    = unavailable for use
   location      = /export/nim/mksysb/my_vios/my_vios-ios_mksysb
   version       = 6
   release       = 1
   mod           = 8
   oslevel_r     = 6100-07
   alloc_count   = 0
   server        = master
   creation_date = Mon Sep 30 11:52:35 2013
   source_image  = my_vios
   ioslevel      = 2.2.2.1

Committing existing updates on the Virtual I/O Server with updateios operation.

Commit all uncommitted updates on the Virtual I/O Server. The NIM command will invoke “ioscli updateios -commit” command on the Virtual I/O Server. Remember to remove all ifix/efix before commiting (use emgr)

# /usr/sbin/emgr -r -L IV16920s02
# nim -o updateios -a lpp_source=vios2223-fp26-sp02-lpp_source  -a accept_licenses=yes -a preview=no -a updateios_flags="-commit" -a force=yes my_vios

Updating Virtual I/O Server with updateios operation.

First of all if the Virtual I/O Server is member of a Shared Storage Pool cluster it can’t be updated. Leave the cluster before running the update :

#  clstartstop -stop -n my_cluster -m my_vios

You will face two problems when updating a Virtual I/O Server from NIM with the updateios operation. Running an updateios operation from the NIM server call the script /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_updateios on the Virtual I/O Server. If you perform the updateios operation this one will fail with this output :

# nim -o updateios -a lpp_source=vios2223-fp26-sp02-lpp_source  -a accept_licenses=yes -a preview=no -a updateios_flags="-install" -a force=yes my_vios
[..]
******************************************************************************
End of installp PREVIEW.  No apply operation has actually occurred.
******************************************************************************

Continue bos.rte.install installation [y|n]?
[..]
******************************************************************************
End of installp PREVIEW.  No apply operation has actually occurred.
******************************************************************************

Continue the installation [y|n]?
Command did not complete.

As you can see on the output the updateios command is interactive and ask TWO yes/no questions. On the Virtual I/O Server while running the updateios operation you can check that /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_updateios is called by nimsh process :

# proctree 15466556
4260044    /usr/sbin/srcmstr
   7340280    /usr/sbin/nimsh -s -c
      12451968    /usr/sbin/nimsh -s -c
         15466556    /bin/ksh /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_nimpush /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/meth
            14352628    /bin/ksh /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_updateios -aaccept_licenses=yes -afo
               10944754    /usr/ios/cli/ioscli updateios -install -dev /tmp/_nim_dir_14352628/mnt0 -f -acc
                  5374158    installp -e install.log -a -d /tmp/_nim_dir_14352628/mnt0 bos.rte.install
                     9961620    installp -e install.log -a -d /tmp/_nim_dir_14352628/mnt0 bos.rte.install

If you edit the /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_updateios you can see at the line 130 that ‘y’ it just send one time :

# vi /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_updateios
[..]
                -install)
                        argument="-install -dev $lpp_access ${force:+-f} ${accept_licenses:+-accept}"
                        if [[ $preview = "no" ]]; then
                                command="eval echo 'y' | /usr/ios/cli/ioscli updateios $argument"
                        else
                                command="eval echo 'n' | /usr/ios/cli/ioscli updateios $argument"
                        fi
                        ;;
[..]

Modify the ‘y’ by ‘y\ny’ and the script will send two ‘y’, easy :-) :

# grep -n eval /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_updateios | head -1
130:                            command="eval echo 'y\ny' | /usr/ios/cli/ioscli updateios $argument"

Rerun the NIM operation and the update will start.

At the end of the installation you will probably face another problem. This one occurs only if the Virtual I/O Server NIM client is using nimsh protocol. The NIM operation will hang forever on the NIM server : on the Virtual I/O Server a socket remain opened between the NIM client and the NIM server:

# netstat -Aan |grep 3901
f1000e0001cb2bb8 tcp4       0      0  10.10.20.107.3901   10.10.20.140.1021   ESTABLISHED
f1000e00098bdbb8 tcp        0      0  *.3901                *.*                   LISTEN
# rmsock f1000e00098bdbb8 tcpcb
The socket 0xf1000e00098bd808 is being held by proccess 8126526 (accessprocess).
#  rmsock f1000e0001cb2bb8 tcpcb
The socket 0xf1000e0001cb2808 is being held by proccess 12386388 (cimserver).
#  proctree 12386388
12386388
   8323090    /usr/ios/lpm/sbin/eventhelper --events ref_code,lpar_state,not_ivm,migration_st
# proctree 8126526
15269920    /usr/bin/ksh /usr/ios/lpm/sbin/lparmgr all start
   8126526    /usr/ios/lpm/sbin/accessprocess
# ps -ef |grep 12386388
    root  8323090 12386388   0 15:44:31      -  0:00 /usr/ios/lpm/sbin/eventhelper --events ref_code,lpar_state,not_ivm,migration_state,vsp_state
    root 12386388        1   0 15:42:56      -  0:16 [cimserve]

The issue was found with the support, a command called by cimserve called climgr is not closing correctly its file descriptors a the end of the update, modify this script to close all opened file descriptor :

# grep -n exec /usr/ios/sbin/climgr
366:exec 1<&-
367:exec 2<&-
368:exec 5<&-

Rerun the operation and evrything will just work fine :-)

Conclusion

I assume these two problems will be fixed in the next Virtual I/O Server release, probably not the 2.2.3.0 version but the next one (I have to wait in average 6 months before the fix is applied to the current version). Once again I want to thanks the IBM Support for helping me on these cases and for their efficiency. I hope it helps.

NIM Less known features : HANIM, nimsh over ssl, DSM

The Network Installation Manager server is one of the most important host in an environment. New machines installations, machines backups, backups restorations,software (filesets), third party products installations, in some cases volume group backups are made from the NIM server. Some best practices have to be respected. I’ll give you in this post a few tricks for NIM. First off all a NIM server has to be in your disaster recovery plan because it the first server needed when you have to re-build a crashed machine : my solution HANIM. It has to be secured (nimsh, and nimsh authentication over ssl), and it has to be flexible and automated (DSM).

NIM High Availability : HANIM

Finding documentation and information about NIM High Availability is not so easy. I recommend you to check the NIM from a to Z Redbook, it’s one of the only viable source for HANIM. HANIM simple to setup and simple to use, but there are a few things to know and to understand about it :

HANIM Overview

  • The alternate NIM master is a backup NIM build from the NIM master.
  • Takeover operations from master to alternate are manuals. PowerHA can be used to run these takeover operations but my advice is not to use it. Takeover can be performed even if the NIM master is down. HANIM does not perform any heartbeat.
  • HANIM only provides a method for replicating NIM database and resources. Resources can be replicated from master to alternate : NIM database AND resources data can be replicated (replicate=yes option).
  • My advice is to run every NIM operation from the master (even if it is possible to run a NIM operation from the alternate).
  • Disks are not shared between the master and the alternate, when a sync operation is done, missing resources are copied over NFS form the master to the alternate, or from the alternate to the master. HANIM does not provides a filesystem takeover.
  • A takeover operation modify all the nimclient’s /etc/niminfo files. The NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME_LIST is modified by the takeover operation and the alternate NIM master is moved in first position. The NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME is modified with the alternated NIM master hostname.


Initial setup

On the NIM master and on the alternate NIM master some filesets have to be installed, check the presence of : bos.sysmgt.nim.master, bos.sysmgt.nim.spot, bos.sysmgt.nim.client. NIM master and alternate NIM master must be one the same AIX version :

# lslpp -l | grep -i nim
  bos.sysmgt.nim.client     7.1.2.15  COMMITTED  Network Install Manager -
  bos.sysmgt.nim.master     7.1.2.15  COMMITTED  Network Install Manager -
  bos.sysmgt.nim.spot       7.1.2.15  COMMITTED  Network Install Manager - SPOT
  bos.sysmgt.nim.client     7.1.2.15  COMMITTED  Network Install Manager -
# oslevel -s
7100-02-02-1316

Configure the NIM master

Initialize the NIM master with the nimconfig command, you’ll need to name the first network used by NIM. nimesis daemons will be started at this step.

# nimconfig -a pif_name=en0 -a netname=10-10-20-0-s24-net -a master_port=1058 -a verbose=3 -a cable_type=N/A
[..]
Checking input attributes.
attr_ass:
        'cpuid' => '00F359164D00'
        'pif_name' => 'en0'
        'netname' => '10-10-20-0-s24-net'
        'master_port' => '1058'
        'cable_type' => 'N/A'
        'net_addr' => '10.10.20.1'
        'snm' => '255.255.255.0'
        'adpt_addr' => '667C70F7A904'
        'adpt_name' => 'ent0'
Making sure the NIM Master package is OK.
      set_state: id=1361463886; name=; state_attr=85; new_state=5;
   checking the object definition of ;
   checking interface info for master;
Built NIM infomation file.
      10.10.20.1 is known as nim_master
Adding default route 10.10.20.254 to network object
         0 - /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/m_mknet
         1 - -anet_addr=10.10.20.1
         2 - -asnm=255.255.255.0
         3 - -tent
         4 - -arouting1=default 10.10.20.254
         5 - 10-10-20-0-s24-net
Connecting NIM master to master network.
         0 - /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/m_chmaster
         1 - -aif1=10-10-20-0-s24-net nim_master 667C70F7A904
         2 - -amaster_port=1058
         3 - -aregistration_port=1059
         4 - -acable_type1=N/A
         5 - master
Adding NIM deamons to SRC and starting....
0513-071 The nimesis Subsystem has been added.
0513-071 The nimd Subsystem has been added.
0513-059 The nimesis Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 9568296.
[..]

NIM resources such as spot, lpp_source and so on can be created right now, please refer to the NIM cheatsheet by chmod666.org ;-). For the purpose of this post some resources (spot, lpp_source, mksysb, network) are created, these ones will be replicated later.

Configure the alternate NIM master

NIM alternate master is configured with the niminit command. If you check on the NIM from a to Z, page 124, a note is warning you about the synchronization : “At the time of writing, only rsh/rshd communication is supported for NIM synchronization.”.THIS STATEMENT IS FALSE : I’m using nimsh for the synchronization, and I recommend to use it. We are in 2013, do not use rsh anymore.

# niminit -a is_alternate=yes -a master=nim_master -a pif_name=en0 -a cable_type1=N/A -a connect=nimsh -a name=nim_alternate
0513-071 The nimesis Subsystem has been added.
0513-071 The nimd Subsystem has been added.
0513-059 The nimesis Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 10944522.
nimsh:2:wait:/usr/bin/startsrc -g nimclient >/dev/console 2>&1
0513-044 The nimsh Subsystem was requested to stop.
0513-059 The nimsh Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 5963998.

Verification

You’re done with the configuration, you can now start to synchronize, replicate and takeover… pretty easy. Here are some points you can verify :

  • On the NIM master, the attribute is_alternate is set to yes :
  • # lsnim -l master
    [..]
       is_alternate        = yes
    [..]
    
  • On the NIM master, a new machine object typed alternate_master is created :
  • # lsnim -t alternate_master
    nim_alternate     machines       alternate_master
    
  • After the first database synchronization, on the alternate NIM master, a new machine object typed alternate_master is created, this the NIM master :
  • # lsnim -t alternate_master
    nim_master     machines       alternate_master
    
  • On the alternate NIM master, the attribute is_alternate does not exists :
  • # lsnim -l master | grep alternate
    

Synchronization and replication

NIM master and alternate NIM master can now communicate with each others, some resources are created on the master, and it’s now time to synchronize. Remember : HANIM only provides a method for replicating NIM database and resources. You can -if you want- synchronize the NIM database only or the NIM database and its resources (data included). Remember : never perform a NIM synchronization from the alternate NIM master.

Database synchronization only

The database synchronization is useful, when objects are modified, for example when you are modifying a subnet mask for a network object. It also can be useful when objects “without files” are created ; for instance a machine. On the other hand if your are trying to synchronize the database if an object “with a file” exists such as an lpp_source, a spot, or an fb_script, this one will not be created, you have to copy the file before synchronize, or use the replicate attribute :

  • On NIM master two objects are created, an fb_script and a machine:
  • # nim -o define -t fb_script -a server=master -a location=/export/nim/others/postinstall/fb_script.ksh fb_script01
    # ls -l /export/nim/others/postinstall/fb_script.ksh
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system           35 Mar  8 18:01 /export/nim/others/postinstall/fb_script.ksh
    # lsnim ruby
    ruby     machines       standalone
    
  • A database synchronization is performed :
  • # nim -o sync -a force nim_alternate
    [..]
    The level of the NIM master fileset on this machine is: 7.1.2.15
    The level of the NIM database backup is: 7.1.2.15
    [..]
    Checking NIM resources
      Removing fb_script01
        0518-307 odmdelete: 1 objects deleted. from nim_attr (serves attr)
        0518-307 odmdelete: 0 objects deleted. from nim_attr (group memberships)
        0518-307 odmdelete: 5 objects deleted. from nim_attr (resource attributes)
        0518-307 odmdelete: 1 objects deleted. from nim_object (resource object)
      Finished removing fb_script01
    
  • On the alternate NIM master, the machine object is here but the fb_script was not replicated because the file was not present on the alternate NIM master :
  • # lsnim ruby
    ruby     machines       standalone
    # lsnim fb_script01
    0042-053 lsnim: there is no NIM object named "fb_script01"
    
  • If you copy the file before synchronize the resource will be created :
  • master# scp fb_script.ksh nim_alternate:/export/nim/others/postinstall
    fb_script.ksh                      100%   35     0.0KB/s   00:00
    
    master# nim -o sync -a force nim_alternate
    [..]
    Restoring the NIM database from /tmp/_nim_dir_13041674/mnt0
    x ./etc/NIM.level, 9 bytes, 1 tape blocks
    [..]
      Keeping fb_script01
    
    alternate# # lsnim fb_script01
    fb_script01     resources       fb_script
    

    Synchronization with replication

    I encourage you not to use the database synchronization, but to use it with replication, it does the same job but copy the files for you. Much much easier, just add replicate=yes attribute to the nim command, it works like a charm :

    # lsnim -q sync alternate_master
    
    the following attributes are optional:
            -a verbose=
            -a replicate=
            -a reset_clients=
    # nim -o sync -a force=yes -a replicate=yes alternate_master
    

    Takeover

    If the NIM master is down a takeover operation allows the alternate NIM master to become NIM master for the clients. On clients /etc/niminfo file is modified (NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME and NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME_LIST attributes are modified).

    • /etc/niminfo and lsnim output file before a takeover operation :
    • client# grep -E "NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME_LIST|NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME" /etc/niminfo
      export NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME=nim_master
      export NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME_LIST="nim_master nim_alternate"
      master# lsnim -l client | grep current_master
         current_master = nim_master
      
    • Takeover operation is initiated from the alternate NIM master :
    • alternate# nim -o takeover -a show_progress=yes nim_master
      +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                            Performing "reset" Operation
      +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
      +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                            "reset" Operation Summary
      +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
       Target                  Result
       ------                  ------
       client                   RESET
       client1                  RESET
       [..]
      +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                            Initiating "takeover" Operation
      +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
       Initiating the takeover operation on machine 1 of 240: client ...
      
       Initiating the takeover operation on machine 2 of 240: client1...
      [..]
      +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                            "takeover" Operation Summary
      +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
       Target                  Result
       ------                  ------
       client                  SUCCESS
       client1                 SUCCESS
      [..]
      alternate# lsnim -l client | grep current_master
         current_master = nim_alternate
      client# grep -E "NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME_LIST|NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME" /etc/niminfo
      export NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME=nim_alternate
      export NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME_LIST="nim_alternate nim_master"
      
    • When the NIM master is up, initiate the takeover for the master :
    • # nim -o takeover -a show_progress=yes nim_alternate
      

    Synchronization automation and other files ?

    I recommend to run a NIM synchronization every day, I personally have a cronjob doing it every day at eleven PM. Most of the time a NIM synchronization is not enough and you’ll need to synchronize others file in my case, my root .profile my etc/hosts file, in your case whatever you want. For this need I’m using a little script based over rsync which synchronize my master to my alternate everyday :

    # crontab -l
    [..]
    0 23 * * * /export/nim/others/tools/do_sync.ksh >/dev/null 2>&1
    [..]
    # cat /export/nim/others/tools/do_sync.ksh
    [..]
        nim -o sync -a force=yes -a replicate=yes -a reset_clients=yes ${alternate}
        /export/nim/others/tools/sync_to_alternate.ksh
    [..]
    # cat /export/nim/others/tools/sync_to_alternate.ksh
    [..]
      /usr/bin/rsync -ave ssh ${a_filesystem} ${alternate_nim_master}:${a_filesystem}
    [..]
    

    NIM Security, use nimsh and use it over SSL

    nimsh over ssl

    NIM Master configuration form nimsh over SSL

    From the NIM master enable the SSL support trough the nimconfig command, certificates will be generated in /ssl_nimsh/keys, OpenSSL fileset has to be installed :

    • Check OpenSSL filesets :
    • # lslpp -l | grep openssl
        openssl.base            0.9.8.2400  COMMITTED  Open Secure Socket Layer
        openssl.license         0.9.8.2400  COMMITTED  Open Secure Socket License
        openssl.man.en_US       0.9.8.2400  COMMITTED  Open Secure Socket Layer
        openssl.base            0.9.8.2400  COMMITTED  Open Secure Socket Layer
      
    • Use nimconfig to enable SSL support :
    • # nimconfig -c
      0513-029 The tftpd Subsystem is already active.
      Multiple instances are not supported.
      NIM_MASTER_HOSTNAME=nim_master
      x - /usr/lib/libssl.so.0.9.8
      x - /usr/lib/libcrypto.so.0.9.8
      Target "all" is up to date.
      Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
      ......++++++
      .++++++
      writing new private key to '/ssl_nimsh/keys/rootkey.pem'
      -----
      Signature ok
      subject=/C=US/ST=Texas/L=Austin/O=ibm.com/CN=Root CA
      Getting Private key
      Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
      ...............++++++
      .......++++++
      writing new private key to '/ssl_nimsh/keys/clientkey.pem'
      -----
      Signature ok
      subject=/C=US/ST=Texas/L=Austin/O=ibm.com
      Getting CA Private Key
      Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
      ......++++++
      .............++++++
      writing new private key to '/ssl_nimsh/keys/serverkey.pem'
      -----
      Signature ok
      subject=/C=US/ST=Texas/L=Austin/O=ibm.com
      Getting CA Private Key
      
    • Check the NIM master : attribute ssl_support is now set to yes :
    • # lsnim -l master | grep ssl_support
         ssl_support         = yes
      

    NIM alternate master for nimsh over SSL

    If you’re using an alternate NIM master repeat the same operation (OpenSSL and nimconfig -r). Alternate NIM master is also a client of the NIM master, its client has to be configured :

    # nimclient -c
    x - /usr/lib/libssl.so.0.9.8
    x - /usr/lib/libcrypto.so.0.9.8
    Received 2763 Bytes in 0.0 Seconds
    0513-044 The nimsh Subsystem was requested to stop.
    0513-077 Subsystem has been changed.
    0513-059 The nimsh Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 9502954.
    

    Client configuration

    Configure all nimclients to use ssl crypted authentication, if you are using alternate NIM master do not forget to download alternate certificates on clients :

    # rmitab nimsh 2>/dev/null 
    # rm -rf /etc/niminfo
    # niminit -aname=$(hostname) -a master=nim_master -a master_port=1058 -a registration_port=1059 -a connect=nimsh
    # nimclient -c
    # nimclient -o get_cert -a master_name=nim_alternate
    # stopsrc -s nimsh
    # startsrc -s nimsh
    

    On the NIM server itself client’s connect attribute is now set to “nimsh (secure)” :

    # lsnim -l ruby | grep connect
       connect        = nimsh (secure)
    

    Are the data encrypted ?

    Check this statement in NIM from a to Z Redbook at page 434 :

    “Any communication initiated from the NIM client (pull operation) reaches the NIM master on the request for services and registration ports (1058 and 1059, respectively). This communication is not encrypted. For any communication initiated from the NIM master (push operations), the NIM master communicates with the NIM client using the NIMSH daemon. This allows an encrypted handshake dialog during authentication. However, data packets are not encrypted.”

    To sum up :

    • Only push operations can use secure nimsh.
    • Data packets are not encrypted.
    • Secure nimsh just add an encrypted handshake between NIM master and its clients.

    Have a look on this two screenshots, the first one is the tcp stream of a non-secure operation, the second one is secured :

    • Non secure tcp stream of a push operation :
    • Secure tcp stream of a push operation :

    Distributed Systems Management

    Distributed Systems Management (we’ll call it DSM until now), is a set of tools and programs used to enhance NIM capabilities. I personally use DSM for two main purposes, opening and monitoring consoles through the dconsole utility, and to automate my installations. DSM add new objects the NIM environment, and new attributes to the NIM objects. You can also gain more on control on your lpars and directly restart, maint_boot an lpar through NIM by using DSM. Hardware Management Console (HMC objects) and Pserie’s frames (CEC objects) can be added in NIM, profile management are added to standalone objects in order to take advantage of DSM with NIM.

    There are two main source of information for DSM

    • The dsm.core fileset comes with a pdf file named dsm_tech_note.pdf, page 161, chapter 5.
    • # lslpp -f dsm.core | grep dsm_tech_note.pdf
                              /opt/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/doc/dsm_tech_note.pdf
      
    • There are full detailed examples in the IBM AIX Version 7.1 Differences Guide .

    Filesets prerequisites

    Starting with AIX 6.1 TL3 base installation media are shipped with DSM packages (dsm.core). expect, tcl, tk, and xterm are needed by this DSM pacakges :

    # lslpp -l | grep -E "dsm|tcl|tk|expect|xterm"
      X11.apps.aixterm           7.1.2.0  COMMITTED  AIXwindows aixterm Application
      X11.apps.xterm            7.1.2.15  COMMITTED  AIXwindows xterm Application
      X11.msg.en_US.apps.aixterm
                                 7.1.2.0  COMMITTED  AIXwindows aixterm Messages -
      dsm.core                  7.1.2.15  COMMITTED  Distributed Systems Management
      dsm.dsh                   7.1.2.15  COMMITTED  Distributed Systems Management
      expect.base               5.42.1.0  COMMITTED  Binary executable files of
      expect.man.en_US          5.42.1.0  COMMITTED  Expect man page documentation
      tcl.base                   8.4.7.0  COMMITTED  Binary executable files of Tcl
      tcl.man.en_US              8.4.7.0  COMMITTED  Tcl man page documentation
      tk.base                    8.4.7.0  COMMITTED  Binary executable files of Tk
      tk.man.en_US               8.4.7.0  COMMITTED  Tk man page documentation
    

    Defining HMC objects

    DSM is using HMC to start (poweron) lpars, stop (poweroff) lpars and open console on lpars. HMC can be defined on NIM. An HMC object is a management object. To avoid prompting password each time a NIM operations is performed, or each time dconsole is called, DSM provides a mechanism to manage SSH key sharing between the NIM and the HMC. Before adding an HMC object use dpasswd and dkeyexch command to enable SSH key authentication :

    • Create the authentication file with dpasswd command. File is by default stored in /etc/ibm/sysmgm/dsm/config :
    • # dpasswd -f hmc1_passwd -U hscroot
      Password:
      Re-enter password:
      Password file created
      # ls -l  /etc/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/config/
      total 24
      -r--r--r--    1 root     system           16 Mar 11 13:25 .key
      -r--r--r--    1 root     system           24 Mar 11 13:25 hmc1_passwd
      
    • Share the key between NIM master and HMC using dkeyexch command :
    • # dkeyexch -f /etc/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/config/hmc1_passwd -I hmc -H hmc1
      OpenSSH_6.0p1, OpenSSL 0.9.8x 10 May 2012
      
    • At this step you should be able to connect to the HMC without password prompting :
    • # ssh hscroot@hmc1
      Last login: Mon Mar 11 13:51:35 2013 from 10.10.20.21
      
    • Define the new HMC object with nim command, the network on which the HMC is running must be defined as an NIM network :
    • # nim -o define -t ent -a net_addr=10.10.30.0 -a snm=255.255.254.0 -a routing1="default 10.10.31.254" 10-10-30-0-s23-net
      # nim -o define -t hmc -a if1="find_net hmc1 0" -a passwd_file=/etc/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/config/hmc1_passwd hmc1
      # lsnim -t hmc
      hmc1     management       hmc
      # lsnim -lF hmc1
      hmc1:
         id          = 1363005068
         class       = management
         type        = hmc
         if1         = 10-10-30-0-s23-net hmc1 0
         Cstate      = ready for a NIM operation
         prev_state  =
         Mstate      = not running
         passwd_file = /etc/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/config/hmc1_passwd
      

    Defining CEC objects

    Defining HMC object allows to define CEC object, NIM CEC‘s object are requiring four mandatory attributes, hardware type (hw_type), hardware model (hw_model), hardware serial (hw_serial), and the HMC used to control this CEC object (mgmt_source). Query the HMC to get the attributes with lssyscfg command, and define the new CEC object with the nim command :

    • Querying HMC to get hw_model, hw_serial, and hw_type :
    • # ssh hscroot@hmc1 "lssyscfg -r sys -F name,type_model,serial_num"
      # CEC1,8203-E4A,060CE99
      
    • lssyscfg output tells you that : hw_type=8203, hw_model=EA4 and hw_serial=060CE99
    • Create the CEC object :
    • # nim -o define -t cec -a hw_type=8203 -a hw_model=E4A -a hw_serial=060CE99 -a mgmt_source=hmc1 cec1
      # lsnim -l cec1
      cec1:
         class      = management
         type       = cec
         Cstate     = ready for a NIM operation
         prev_state =
         hmc        = hmc1
         serial     = 8203-E4A*060CE99
      

    Adding profile management to standalone object

    To define a standalone object with a management profile or to add a management profile to an existing standalone, MAC address and lpar id are needed, the lpar id can easily be learned by the HMC, for the MAC address use the dgetmacs command to get it:

    • Get the lpar id trough the HMC :
    • ssh hscroot@infmc102 "lssyscfg -r lpar -m CEC1 -F name,lpar_id"
      lpar1,5
      lpar2,4
      vios1,3
      vios2,2
      lpar3,1
      
    • Define the machine and replace the MAC address by 0 :
    • # nim -o define -t standalone -a if1="10-10-20-0-s24-net lpar2 0" -a net_settings1="auto auto" -a mgmt_profile1="hmc1 4 CEC1" lpar2
      
    • Retrieve the machine MAC address by using the dgetmacs command, the host will booted on openfirmware. If the host is already installed get the MAC address with entstat command directly on the machine :
    • #  dgetmacs -n lpar2 -C NIM
      Using an adapter type of "ent".
      Could not dsh to node lpar2.
      Attempting to use openfirmware method to collect MAC addresses.
      Acquiring adapter information from Open Firmware for node lpar2.
      
      # Node::adapter_type::interface_name::MAC_address::location::media_speed::adapter_duplex::UNUSED::install_gateway::ping_status::machine_type::netaddr::subnet_mask
      
      lpar1::ent_v::::2643EEBC6C04::U8203.E4A.060CE99-V4-C4-T1::auto::auto::::::n/a::secondary::::
      
    • Modify the NIM object to add the MAC address :
    • # nim -o change -a if1="10-10-20-0-s24-net lpar2 2643EEBC6C04" lpar2
      

    Using dconsole to open and monitor machines consoles

    If the machine is already installed, or after the installation with a bos_inst operation, you can manage its console with the dconsole command. A few cool things comes with dconsole such as opening a console in read only mode, opening a console in text mode or through an xterm, and logging all consoles outputs into /var/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/log/console; here are a few examples :

    • Opening a text console in read-write mode and log the output in /var/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/log/console :
    • # dconsole -C NIM -n lpar2 -t -l
      Starting console daemon
      [read-write session]
      
       Open in progress
      
       Open Completed.
      AIX Version 7
      Copyright IBM Corporation, 1982, 2013.
      Console login: root
      # echo test
      test
      # tail -10 /var/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/log/console/lpar2.0
      # echo test
      test
      # exit
      
    • Opening an xterm console in read-write mode and log the output in /var/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/log/console on greenclient1 :
    • # export DISPLAY=10.10.20.35:0
      # dconsole -C NIM -n greenclient1  -l
      Starting console daemon
      

    • Opening a text console in read-only mode :
    • # dconsole -C NIM -n lpar2  -l -t -r
      Starting console daemon
      [read only session, user input discarded]
      
       Open in progress
      
       Open Completed.
      AIX Version 7
      Copyright IBM Corporation, 1982, 2013.
      Console login: [read only session, user input discarded]
      [read only session, user input discarded]
      

    bos_inst operation through NIM with DSM

    Machine installation and bos_inst operation can be automated with DSM. If a machine has a management profile and a bos_inst operation is performed this one will be rebooted and automatically installed, I do install machine with this method and it works like a charm :

    • Install the machine lpar2 in aix 7100-02-02, a bosinst_data with no prompt stanza was created for this installation :
    • # nim -o bos_inst -a bosinst_data=hdisk0_noprompt-bosinst_data -a source=rte -a installp_flags=agX -a accept_licenses=yes -a spot=7100-02-02-1316-spot -a lpp_source=7100-02-02-1316-lpp_source lpar2
      dnetboot Status: Invoking /opt/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/dsmbin/lpar_netboot lpar2
      dnetboot Status: Was successful network booting node lpar2.
      
    • DSM is using HMC lpar_netboot command to install machines, the output of this command can be found in /tmp filesystem :
    • # cat /tmp/lpar_netboot.12124286.exec.log
      lpar_netboot Status: process id is 12124286
      lpar_netboot Status: lpar_netboot -i -t ent -D -S 10.10.20.140 -G 10.10.20.254 -C 10.10.20.202 -m 2643EEBC6C04 -s auto -d auto -F /etc/ibm/sysmgt/dsm/config/hmc1_passwd -j hmc -J 10.10.30.1 4 060C
      E74 8203-E4A
      [..]
      IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM
      IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM IBM
      
                1 = SMS Menu                          5 = Default Boot List
                8 = Open Firmware Prompt              6 = Stored Boot List
      [..]
      10.10.20.202:    24  bytes from 10.10.20.140:  icmp_seq=7  ttl=? time=21  ms
      
      10.10.20.202:    24  bytes from 10.10.20.140:  icmp_seq=8  ttl=? time=21  ms
      PING SUCCESS.
      [..]
      38300 ^MPACKET COUNT = 38400 ^MPACKET COUNT = 38500 ^MPACKET COUNT = 38600 ^MPACKET COUNT = 38700 ^MPACKET COUNT = 38800 ^MPACKET COUNT = 38900 ^MFINAL PACKET COUNT = 38913
      FINAL FILE SIZE = 19922944  BYTES
      
    • The installation progression can be monitored form the NIM itself :
    • # lsnim -l lpar2 |grep info
         info           = BOS install 39% complete : Installing additional software.
      

    Is it free ?

    Unlike CSM DSM is free, you do not need any licenses to use it. As you can see these tools can be very powerful to automate installations for standalone clients. VMControl is using DSM and NIM to automate installations. DSM is the right tool to industrialize your NIM installations.

    Cheatsheet

    I love cheat sheet ! NIM commands are complex and hard to remember, I’ve search over the internet if a NIM cheat sheet already exists but I haven’t found anything correct or anything that fits my needs. I’m sure that a lot of my readers already knows William Favorite’s Quicksheets. I’m a huge fan of this Quicksheets and I was inspired by Willam when creating my own one for NIM. Feel free to contact me if you want to add or correct something in my cheat sheet, you’ll be -of course- credited if you add some useful informations. Click here to download my NIM cheat sheet :chmod666 NIM Cheat Sheet

    No future ?

    I do love NIM, but in my opinion it’s a little bit outdated, everyone is calling for an update of the Redbook (click here to call for an update ;-)) and of the product, me included. This part of the post was inspired by one of my AIX Guru, thanks to him, I’m sure he’ll recognize himself. If IBMers are reading this part of the post, please tell IBM to update NIM. Readers please react in the comments if you agree with me on this point. Here are a few points I want to see in a future NIM release :

    • Network package repository of software : publish lpp_source over http or https. IBM can publish an official repository, and customer can create its own one on the NIM server (this one can be synchronized with IBM official repository).
    • Create a client (updated nimclient) with search and download option. (Yes like yum).
    • Getting rid of bootp and tftp, download kernel (created in /tftpboot when a new SPOT is created) and ramdisk image trough http or https.
    • Replace nfs exports by http or https (or force nfsv4) for NIM resources sharing (SPOT, lpp_source, install_script, bosinst_data…)(easier for security, and firewall ruling).
    • Allow IPL menu to be setup in dhcp.
    • Automatic dependencies checking and resolution while installing a software.
    • Simplify postinstall (script) and firstboot (fb_script). My actual solution is to create a firstboot script, this one download a script and add an entry in /etc/inittab, the downloaded script do the job and remove the entry in /etc/inittab at the end of its execution.
    • Automatic multibos creation while updating a system trough NIM — or in option.
    • Keep mksysb the way it is, this is the best bare metal backup I ever known.
    • Getting rid of rsh, force user to use nimsh (for nimadm too).
    • Better design for high availability (HANIM auto sync for example).
    • NIM Database flexibility : Let user renaming an resource object (please do this !!!) — Who has never experienced this problem while creating a SPOT or an lpp_source with an erroneous name ?
    • Allow allocating multiple lpp_source for different installp_bundle for installation.
    • Allow nimadm migration to be performed without the exact same level for bos.alt_disk_install.rte fileset.
    • Allow nimsh to be configured over http or https (no more multiple ports for nimsh ; easier for security, and firewall ruling).
    • Automatically enabled cryptographic authentication for NIM service handler. (nimsh can uses SSL-encrypted certificates).
    • Easier NIM backup and restore, getting rid of m_backup_db and m_restore_db.


    Please comment and react I do need support ;-). Hope this can help.

Restoring mksysb image without nim using virtual optical disk and mkcd command

Sometimes, it can be very usefull to restore an lpar through CD/DVD. For example, your LPAR cannot access any known VLAN, or you don’t have any nim server. PowerVM virtualisation provides the ability to store images into repositories and to load them on Virtual Optic Devices. LPAR can be restored very easy with this method.

Creating image repository

First of all you need to create a Repository to store virtual media cd, use mkrep command create this Repository.
This Repository has to be created on an Storage Pool, by default, rootvg Storage Pool exists.

# lssp
Pool   Size(mb) Free(mb) Alloc Size(mb) BDs Type
rootvg 279552   201216         256      0 LVPOOL
# mkrep -sp rootvg -size 20G
Virtual Media Repository Created
Repository created within "VMLibrary" logical volume
# lsrep
Size(mb) Free(mb) Parent Pool Parent Size Parent Free
  20396    20396  rootvg           279552      201216

Adding virtual scsi adapter on LPAR and on VIO Server

On client LPAR

On lpar, create a new Client SCSI Adapter device as described below :
As you can see on image below (you can choose whatever you want) :

  • Client Vscsi adapter ID is set to 100.
  • Server Vscsi adapter ID is set to 100.

On VIO Server

On VIO Server, create a new Server SCSI Adapter device as described below :

As you can see on image below, Client Vscsi adapter ID (100) and Server Vscsi adapter ID are matching :

Post cheks on VIO Server

On VIO Server check that Virtual SCSI adapter is here, and is matching with our ID (100) :

# lsdev -type adapter | grep vhost0
vhost0           Available   Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
# lsdev -slots | grep vhost0
U9119.FHB.84F55B6-V3-C100    Virtual I/O Slot  vhost0

Creating a DVD mksysb form an AIX Lpar

On the host you want to restore create an mksysb image with mksysb command :

# mksysb -i /mksysb_images/my_node.mksysb
[..]

You now have to convert this mksysb into CD/DVDs, unfortunatly it’s not possible to create a big iso file and you’ll have to choose CD or DVD format. Use the mkcd command to convert mksysb file into bootable CD/DVDs. In our example we’ll create DVD sized iso files.

# mkcd -L -S -I /mksysb_images/mkcd -m /mksysb_images/my_node.mksysb
Initializing mkcd log: /var/adm/ras/mkcd.log...
Verifying command parameters...
Creating temporary file system: /mkcd/cd_fs...
Populating the CD or DVD file system...
Building chrp boot image...
Copying backup to the CD or DVD file system...
......
Creating Rock Ridge format image: /mksysb_images/mkcd/cd_image_11010246.vol1
Running mkisofs ...
.......
mkrr_fs was successful.

Making the CD or DVD image bootable...

Copying the remainder of the backup to the CD or DVD file system...
Creating Rock Ridge format image: /mksysb_images/mkcd/cd_image_11010246.vol2
Running mkisofs ...
.......
mkrr_fs was successful.

Copying the remainder of the backup to the CD or DVD file system...
Creating Rock Ridge format image: /mksysb_images/mkcd/cd_image_11010246.vol3
Running mkisofs ...
...
mkrr_fs was successful.
  • -L : this option is used to create DVD sized iso images.
  • -S : this option is used to keep image file, and avoid writing it on a real DVD.
  • -I : specify the directory where images will be stored.
  • -m : mksysb image file to convert into DVDs.

mkcd command as created three DVD files :

# ls -l
total 53815784
-rw-r--r--    1 root     system   4274950144 Apr 30 13:09 cd_image_22872126.vol1
-rw-r--r--    1 root     system   4293890048 Apr 30 13:12 cd_image_22872126.vol2
-rw-r--r--    1 root     system   4293890048 Apr 30 13:14 cd_image_22872126.vol3

Adding images to VIO Server repository

After creating DVDs files from an mksysb file you’ll have to put them on VIO Server repository, transfer it via scp or NFS, and add it into repository :

# mkvopt -name cd_image_22872126.vol1 -file ./cd_image_22872126.vol1
# mkvopt -name cd_image_22872126.vol2 -file ./cd_image_22872126.vol2
# mkvopt -name cd_image_22872126.vol3 -file ./cd_image_22872126.vol3
# lsrep
Size(mb) Free(mb) Parent Pool         Parent Size      Parent Free
   20397     7208 rootvg                   279552           201216

Name                                    File Size Optical         Access
cd_image_22872126.vol1                       4077 None            rw
cd_image_22872126.vol2                       4095 None            rw
cd_image_22872126.vol3                       4095 None            rw

Create Virtual Optic Device on VIO Server

On VIO Server create a Virtual Optic Device on Server Virtual SCSI Adapter with mkvdev command

# mkvdev -fbo -vadapter vhost0 -dev lpar_cdrom0
lpar_cdrom0 Available

Loading and Unloading Optic Device

You just have finished, load first DVD on Virtual Optic Device, boot the client on LPAR on Virtual SCSI Adapter and start you restore, then load DVDs one by one :

# loadopt -disk cd_image_22872126.vol1 -vtd lpar_cdrom0 -release
# lsrep
lsrep
Size(mb) Free(mb) Parent Pool         Parent Size      Parent Free
   20397     7208 rootvg                   279552           201216

Name                                    File Size Optical         Access
cd_image_22872126.vol1                       4077 lpar_cdrom0     rw
cd_image_22872126.vol2                       4095 None            rw
cd_image_22872126.vol3                       4095 None            rw
# unloadopt -release -vtd lpar_cdrom0
# loadopt -disk cd_image_22872126.vol2 -vtd lpar_cdrom0 -release
lsrep
Size(mb) Free(mb) Parent Pool         Parent Size      Parent Free
   20397     7208 rootvg                   279552           201216

Name                                    File Size Optical         Access
cd_image_22872126.vol1                       4077 None            rw
cd_image_22872126.vol2                       4095 lpar_cdrom0     rw
cd_image_22872126.vol3                       4095 None            rw

You’re done.