Enhance your AIX packages management with yum and nim over http

As AIX is getting older and older our old favorite OS is still trying to struggle versus the mighty Linux and the fantastic Solaris (no sarcasm in that sentence I truly believe what I say). You may have notice that -with time- IBM is slowly but surely moving from proprietary code to something more open (ie. PowerVC/Openstack projects, integration with Chef, Linux on Power and tons of other examples). I’m a little bit deviating from the main topic of this blog post but speaking about open source I have many things to say. If someone from my company is reading this post please note that it is my point of view … but I’m still sure that we are going the WRONG way not being more open, and not publishing on github. Starting from now every AIX IT shop in world must consider using OpenSource software (git, chef, ansible, zsh and so on) instead of maintaining homemade tools, or worse paying for tools that are 100 % of the time worse than OpenSource tools. Even better, every IT admin and every team must consider sharing their sources with the rest of the world for one single good reason: “Alone we can do so little, together we can do so much”. Every company not considering this today is doomed. Take example on Bloomberg, Facebook (sharing to the world all their Chef’s cookbooks), twitter, they’re all using github to share their opensource projects. Even military, police and banks are doing the same. They’re still secure but they are open to world ready work to make and create things better and better. All of this to introduce you to new things coming on AIX. Instead of reinventing the wheel IBM had the great idea to use already well implanted tools. It was the case for Openstack/PowerVC and it is also for the tools I’ll talk about in this post. It is the case for yum (yellowdog updater modified). Instead of installing rpm packages by hand you now have the possibility to use yum and to definitely end the rpm dependency nightmare that we all had since AIX 5L was released. Next instead of using the proprietary nimsh protocol to install filesets (bff package) you can now tell the nim server and nimclient to this over http/https (secure is only for the authentication as far as I know) (an open protocol :-) ). By doing this you will enhance the way you are managing packages on AIX. Do this now on every AIX system you install, yum everywhere and stop using NFS … we’re now in an http world :-)

yum: the yellow dog updater modified

I’m not going to explain you what yum is. If you don’t know you’re not in the right place. Just note that my advice starting from now is to use yum to install every software of the AIX toolbox (ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/freeSoftware/aixtoolbox/RPMS/ppc/). IBM is providing an official repository than can be mirrored on your own site to avoid having to use a proxy or having an access to the internet from you servers (you must admit that this is almost impossible and every big company will try to avoid this). Let’s start by trying to install yum:

Installing yum

IBM is providing an archive with all the needed rpm mandatory to use and install yum on an AIX server, you can find this archive here: ftp://public.dhe.ibm.com/aix/freeSoftware/aixtoolbox/ezinstall/ppc/yum_bundle_v1.tar. Just download it and install every rpm in it and yum will be available on you system, simple as that:

A specific version of rpm binary command is mandatory to use yum. Before doing anything update the rpm.rte fileset. As AIX is rpm “aware” it already have an rpm database, but this one will not be manageable by yum. The installation of rpm in a version greater than 4.9.1.3 is needed. This installation will migrate the existing rpm database to a new one usable by yum. The fileset in the right version can be found here ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/freeSoftware/aixtoolbox/INSTALLP/ppc/

  • By default the rpm command is installed by an AIX fileset:
  • # which rpm
    /usr/bin/rpm
    # lslpp -w /usr/bin/rpm
      File                                        Fileset               Type
      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      /usr/bin/rpm                                rpm.rte               File
    # rpm --version
    RPM version 3.0.5
    
  • The rpm database is located in /usr/opt/freeware/packages :
  • # pwd
    /usr/opt/freeware/packages
    # ls -ltr
    total 5096
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         4096 Jul 01 2011  triggerindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         4096 Jul 01 2011  conflictsindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        20480 Jul 21 00:54 nameindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        20480 Jul 21 00:54 groupindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system      2009224 Jul 21 00:54 packages.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system       647168 Jul 21 00:54 fileindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        20480 Jul 21 00:54 requiredby.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        81920 Jul 21 00:54 providesindex.rpm
    
  • Install the rpm.rte fileset in the right version (4.9.1.3):
  • # file rpm.rte.4.9.1.3
    rpm.rte.4.9.1.3: backup/restore format file
    # installp -aXYgd . rpm.rte
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                        Pre-installation Verification...
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
    Verifying selections...done
    Verifying requisites...done
    Results...
    
    SUCCESSES
    ---------
      Filesets listed in this section passed pre-installation verification
      and will be installed.
    
      Selected Filesets
      -----------------
      rpm.rte 4.9.1.3                             # RPM Package Manager
    [..]
    #####################################################
            Rebuilding RPM Data Base ...
            Please wait for rpm_install background job termination
            It will take a few minutes
    [..]
    Installation Summary
    --------------------
    Name                        Level           Part        Event       Result
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    rpm.rte                     4.9.1.3         USR         APPLY       SUCCESS
    rpm.rte                     4.9.1.3         ROOT        APPLY       SUCCESS
    
  • After the installation check you have the correct version of rpm, you can also notice some changes in the rpm database files:
  • # rpm --version
    RPM version 4.9.1.3
    # ls -ltr /usr/opt/freeware/packages
    total 25976
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         4096 Jul 01 2011  triggerindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         4096 Jul 01 2011  conflictsindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        20480 Jul 21 00:54 nameindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        20480 Jul 21 00:54 groupindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system      2009224 Jul 21 00:54 packages.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system       647168 Jul 21 00:54 fileindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        20480 Jul 21 00:54 requiredby.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        81920 Jul 21 00:54 providesindex.rpm
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system            0 Jul 21 01:08 .rpm.lock
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         8192 Jul 21 01:08 Triggername
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         8192 Jul 21 01:08 Conflictname
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        28672 Jul 21 01:09 Dirnames
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system       221184 Jul 21 01:09 Basenames
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         8192 Jul 21 01:09 Sha1header
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         8192 Jul 21 01:09 Requirename
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         8192 Jul 21 01:09 Obsoletename
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         8192 Jul 21 01:09 Name
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         8192 Jul 21 01:09 Group
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system       815104 Jul 21 01:09 Packages
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         8192 Jul 21 01:09 Sigmd5
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system         8192 Jul 21 01:09 Installtid
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        86016 Jul 21 01:09 Providename
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system       557056 Jul 21 01:09 __db.004
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system     83894272 Jul 21 01:09 __db.003
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system      7372800 Jul 21 01:09 __db.002
    -rw-r--r--    1 root     system        24576 Jul 21 01:09 __db.001
    

Then install yum. Please note that I already have some rpm installed on my current system that’s why I’m not installing db, or gdbm. If your system is free of any rpm install all the rpm found in the archive:

# tar xvf yum_bundle_v1.tar
x curl-7.44.0-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm, 584323 bytes, 1142 media blocks.
x db-4.8.24-3.aix6.1.ppc.rpm, 2897799 bytes, 5660 media blocks.
x gdbm-1.8.3-5.aix5.2.ppc.rpm, 56991 bytes, 112 media blocks.
x gettext-0.10.40-8.aix5.2.ppc.rpm, 1074719 bytes, 2100 media blocks.
x glib2-2.14.6-2.aix5.2.ppc.rpm, 1686134 bytes, 3294 media blocks.
x pysqlite-1.1.7-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm, 51602 bytes, 101 media blocks.
x python-2.7.10-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm, 23333701 bytes, 45574 media blocks.
x python-devel-2.7.10-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm, 15366474 bytes, 30013 media blocks.
x python-iniparse-0.4-1.aix6.1.noarch.rpm, 37912 bytes, 75 media blocks.
x python-pycurl-7.19.3-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm, 162093 bytes, 317 media blocks.
x python-tools-2.7.10-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm, 830446 bytes, 1622 media blocks.
x python-urlgrabber-3.10.1-1.aix6.1.noarch.rpm, 158584 bytes, 310 media blocks.
x readline-6.1-2.aix6.1.ppc.rpm, 489547 bytes, 957 media blocks.
x sqlite-3.7.15.2-2.aix6.1.ppc.rpm, 1334918 bytes, 2608 media blocks.
x yum-3.4.3-1.aix6.1.noarch.rpm, 1378777 bytes, 2693 media blocks.
x yum-metadata-parser-1.1.4-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm, 62211 bytes, 122 media blocks.
# rpm -Uvh curl-7.44.0-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm glib2-2.14.6-2.aix5.2.ppc.rpm pysqlite-1.1.7-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm python-2.7.10-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm python-devel-2.7.10-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm python-iniparse-0.4-1.ai
x6.1.noarch.rpm python-pycurl-7.19.3-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm python-tools-2.7.10-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm python-urlgrabber-3.10.1-1.aix6.1.noarch.rpm yum-3.4.3-1.aix6.1.noarch.rpm yum-metadata-parser-1.1.4-
1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm
# Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:python                 ########################################### [  9%]
   2:pysqlite               ########################################### [ 18%]
   3:python-iniparse        ########################################### [ 27%]
   4:glib2                  ########################################### [ 36%]
   5:yum-metadata-parser    ########################################### [ 45%]
   6:curl                   ########################################### [ 55%]
   7:python-pycurl          ########################################### [ 64%]
   8:python-urlgrabber      ########################################### [ 73%]
   9:yum                    ########################################### [ 82%]
  10:python-devel           ########################################### [ 91%]
  11:python-tools           ########################################### [100%]

Yum is now ready to be configured and used :-)

# which yum
/usr/bin/yum
# yum --version
3.4.3
  Installed: yum-3.4.3-1.noarch at 2016-07-20 23:24
  Built    : None at 2016-06-22 14:13
  Committed: Sangamesh Mallayya  at 2014-05-29

Setting up yum and you private yum repository for AIX

A private repository

As nobody wants to use the official IBM repository available directly on internet the goal here is to create your own repository. Download all the content of the official repository and “serve” this directory (the one where you download all the rpms) on an private http server (yum is using http/https obviously :-) ).

  • Using wget download the content of the whole official repository. You can notice here that IBM is providing the metadata needed (repodata directory) (if you don’t have this repodata directory yum can’t work properly. This one can be created using the createrepo command available on akk good Linux distros :-) ):
  • # wget -r ftp://public.dhe.ibm.com/aix/freeSoftware/aixtoolbox/RPMS/ppc/
    # ls -ltr
    [..]
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system         4096 Jul 11 22:08 readline
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system          256 Jul 11 22:08 rep-gtk
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system         4096 Jul 11 22:08 repodata
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system         4096 Jul 11 22:08 rpm
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system         4096 Jul 11 22:08 rsync
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system          256 Jul 11 22:08 ruby
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system          256 Jul 11 22:09 rxvt
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system         4096 Jul 11 22:09 samba
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system          256 Jul 11 22:09 sawfish
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system          256 Jul 11 22:09 screen
    drwxr-xr-x    2 root     system          256 Jul 11 22:09 scrollkeeper
    
  • Configure you web server (here it’s just an alias because I’m using my http server for other things):
  • # more httpd.conf
    [..]
    Alias /aixtoolbox/  "/apps/aixtoolbox/"
    
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
        AllowOverride None
        Require all granted
    
    
  • Restart your webserver and check you repository is accessible:
  • repo

  • That’s it the private repository is ready.

Configuring yum

On the client just modify the /opt/freeware/etc/yum/yum.conf or add a file in /opt/freeware/etc/yum/yum.repos.d to point to your private repository:

# cat /opt/freeware/etc/yum/yum.conf
[main]
cachedir=/var/cache/yum
keepcache=1
debuglevel=2
logfile=/var/log/yum.log
exactarch=1
obsoletes=1

[AIX_Toolbox]
name=AIX ToolBox Repository
baseurl=http://nimserver:8080/aixtoolbox/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0

# PUT YOUR REPOS HERE OR IN separate files named file.repo
# in /etc/yum/repos.d

That’s it the client is ready.

Chef recipe to install and configre yum

My readers all knows that I’m using Chef as a configuration management tools. As you are going to do this on every single system you have I think giving you the Chef recipe installing and configuring yum can be useful (if you don’t care about it just skip it and go to the next session). If you are not using a configuration management tool maybe this simple example will help you to move on and stop doing this by hand or writing ksh scripts. I have to do that on tons of system so for me it’s just mandatory. Here is my recipe to do all the job, configuring and installing yum, and installing some RPM:

directory '/var/tmp/yum' do
  action :create
end

remote_file '/var/tmp/yum/rpm.rte.4.9.1.3'  do
  source "http://#{node['nimserver']}/powervc/rpm.rte.4.9.1.3"
  action :create
end

execute "Do the toc" do
  command 'inutoc /var/tmp/yum'
  not_if { File.exist?('/var/tmp/yum/.toc') }
end

bff_package 'rpm.rte' do
  source '/var/tmp/yum/rpm.rte.4.9.1.3'
  action :install
end

tar_extract "http://#{node['nimserver']/powervc/yum_bundle_v1.tar" do
  target_dir '/var/tmp/yum'
  compress_char ''
  user 'root'
  group 'system'
end

# installing some rpm needed for yum
for rpm in [ 'curl-7.44.0-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm', 'python-pycurl-7.19.3-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm', 'python-urlgrabber-3.10.1-1.aix6.1.noarch.rpm', 'glib2-2.14.6-2.aix5.2.ppc.rpm', 'yum-metadata-parser-1.1.4-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm', 'python-iniparse-0.4-1.aix6.1.noarch.rpm', 'pysqlite-1.1.7-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm'  ]
  execute "installing yum" do
    command "rpm -Uvh /var/tmp/yum/#{rpm}"
    not_if "rpm -qa | grep $(echo #{rpm} | sed 's/.aix6.1//' | sed 's/.aix5.2//' | sed 's/.rpm//')"
  end
end

# updating python
execute "updating python" do
  command "rpm -Uvh /var/tmp/yum/python-devel-2.7.10-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm /var/tmp/yum/python-2.7.10-1.aix6.1.ppc.rpm"
  not_if "rpm -qa | grep python-2.7.10-1"
end

# installing yum
execute "installing yum" do
  command "rpm -Uvh /var/tmp/yum/yum-3.4.3-1.aix6.1.noarch.rpm"
  not_if "rpm -qa | grep yum-3.4.3.1.noarch"
end

# changing yum configuration
template '/opt/freeware/etc/yum/yum.conf' do
  source 'yum.conf.erb'
end

# installing some software with aix yum
for soft in [ 'bash', 'bzip2', 'curl', 'emacs', 'gzip', 'screen', 'vim-enhanced', 'wget', 'zlib', 'zsh', 'patch', 'file', 'lua', 'nspr', 'git' ] do
  execute "install #{soft}" do
    command "yum -y install #{soft}"
  end
end

# removing temporary file
execute 'removing /var/tmp/yum' do
  command 'rm -rf /var/tmp/yum'
  only_if { File.exists?('/var/tmp/yum')}
end

chef_yum1
chef_yum2
chef_yum3

After running the chef recipe yum is fully usable \o/ :

chef_yum4

Using yum on AIX: what you need to know

yum is usable just like it is on a Linux system. You may hit some issues when using yum on AIX. For instance you can have this kind of errors:

# yum check
AIX-rpm-7.2.0.1-2.ppc has missing requires of rpm
AIX-rpm-7.2.0.1-2.ppc has missing requires of popt
AIX-rpm-7.2.0.1-2.ppc has missing requires of file-libs
AIX-rpm-7.2.0.1-2.ppc has missing requires of nss

If you are not aware of what is the purpose of AIX-rpm please read this. This rpm is what I call a meta package. It does not install anything. This rpm is used because the rpm database does not know anything about things (binaries, libraries) installed by standard AIX filesets. By default rpm are not “aware” of what is installed by a fileset (bff) but most of rpms depends on things installed by filesets. When you install a fileset … let’s say it install a library like libc.a AIX run the updtvpkg program to rebuild this AIX-rpm and says “this rpm will resolve any rpm dependencies issue for libc.a. So first, never try to uninstall this rpm, second it’s not a real problem is this rpm has missing dependencies …. as it is providing nothing. If you really want to see what dependencies resolve AIX-rpm run the following command:

# rpm -q --provides AIX-rpm-7.2.0.1-2.ppc | grep libc.a
libc.a(aio.o)
# lslpp -w /usr/lib/libc.a
  File                                        Fileset               Type
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  /usr/lib/libc.a                             bos.rte.libc          Symlink

If you want to get rid of these messages just install the missing rpm … using yum:

# yum -y install popt file-libs

A few examples

Here are a few example a software installation using yum:

  • Installing git:
  • # yum install git
    Setting up Install Process
    Resolving Dependencies
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package git.ppc 0:4.3.20-4 will be installed
    --> Finished Dependency Resolution
    
    Dependencies Resolved
    
    ================================================================================================================================================================================================
     Package                                    Arch                                       Version                                         Repository                                          Size
    ================================================================================================================================================================================================
    Installing:
     git                                        ppc                                        4.3.20-4                                        AIX_Toolbox                                        215 k
    
    Transaction Summary
    ================================================================================================================================================================================================
    Install       1 Package
    
    Total size: 215 k
    Installed size: 889 k
    Is this ok [y/N]: y
    Downloading Packages:
    Running Transaction Check
    Running Transaction Test
    Transaction Test Succeeded
    Running Transaction
      Installing : git-4.3.20-4.ppc                                                                                                                                                             1/1
    
    Installed:
      git.ppc 0:4.3.20-4
    
    Complete!
    
  • Removing git :
  • # yum remove git
    Setting up Remove Process
    Resolving Dependencies
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package git.ppc 0:4.3.20-4 will be erased
    --> Finished Dependency Resolution
    
    Dependencies Resolved
    
    ================================================================================================================================================================================================
     Package                                   Arch                                      Version                                           Repository                                          Size
    ================================================================================================================================================================================================
    Removing:
     git                                       ppc                                       4.3.20-4                                          @AIX_Toolbox                                       889 k
    
    Transaction Summary
    ================================================================================================================================================================================================
    Remove        1 Package
    
    Installed size: 889 k
    Is this ok [y/N]: y
    Downloading Packages:
    Running Transaction Check
    Running Transaction Test
    Transaction Test Succeeded
    Running Transaction
      Erasing    : git-4.3.20-4.ppc                                                                                                                                                             1/1
    
    Removed:
      git.ppc 0:4.3.20-4
    
    Complete!
    
  • List available repo
  • yum repolist
    repo id                                                                                repo name                                                                                          status
    AIX_Toolbox                                                                            AIX ToolBox Repository                                                                             233
    repolist: 233
    

Getting rid of nimsh: USE HTTPS !

A new feature that is now available on latest version of AIX (7.2) allows you to use nim over http. It is a long awaited feature for different reasons (it’s just my opinion). I personally don’t like proprietary protocols such as nimsh and nimsh secure … security teams neither. Who has never experienced installation problems because of nimsh port not opened, because of ids, because of security teams ? Using http or https is the solution? No company is not allowing http or https ! This protocol is so used and secured, widely spread in a lot of products that everybody trust it. I personally prefer opening on single port than struggling opening all nimsh ports. You’ll understand that using http is far better than using nimsh. Before explaining this in details here are a few things you need to now. nimhttp is only available on latest version of AIX (7.2 SP0/1/2), same for the nimclient. If there is a problem using http the nimclient will automatically fallback in an NFS mode. Only certain nim operation are available over http:

Configuring the nim server

To use nim over http (nimhttp) you nim server must be at least deployed on an AIX 7.2 server (mine is updated to the latest service pack (SP2)). Start the service nimhttp on the nim server to allow nim to use http for its operations:

# oslevel -s
7200-00-02-1614
# startsrc -s nimhttp
0513-059 The nimhttp Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 11665728.
# lssrc -a | grep nimhttp
 nimhttp                           11665728     active

The nimhttp service will listen on port 4901, this port is defined in the /etc/services :

# grep nimhttp /etc/services
nimhttp         4901/tcp
nimhttp         4901/udp
# netstat -an | grep 4901
tcp4       0      0  *.4901                 *.*                    LISTEN
# rmsock f1000e0004a483b8 tcpcb
The socket 0xf1000e0004a48008 is being held by proccess 14811568 (nimhttpd).
# ps -ef | grep 14811568
    root 14811568  4456760   0 04:03:22      -  0:02 /usr/sbin/nimhttpd -v

If you want to enable crypto/ssl to encrypt http authentication, just add the -a “-c” to your command line. This “-c” argument will tell nimhttp to start in secure mode and encrypt the authentication:

# startsrc -s nimhttp -a "-c"
0513-059 The nimhttp Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 14811570.
# ps -ef | grep nimhttp
    root 14811570  4456760   0 22:57:51      -  0:00 /usr/sbin/nimhttpd -v -c

Starting the service for the first time will create an httpd.conf file in the root home directory :

# grep ^document_root ~/httpd.conf
document_root=/export/nim/
# grep ^service.log ~/httpd.conf
service.log=/var/adm/ras/nimhttp.log

If you choose to enable the secure authentication nimhttp will use the pem certificates file used by nim. If you are already using secure nimsh you don’t have to run the “nimconfig -c” command. If it is the first time this command will create the two pem files (root and server in /ssl_nim/certs) (check my blog post about secure nimsh for more information about that):

# nimconfig -c
# grep ^ssl. ~/httpd.conf
ssl.cert_authority=/ssl_nimsh/certs/root.pem
ssl.pemfile=/ssl_nimsh/certs/server.pem

The document_root of the http server will define the resource the nim http will “serve”. The default one is /export/nim (default nim place for all nim resources (spot, mksysb, lpp_source) and cannot be changed today (I think it is now ok on SP2, I’ll change the blog post as soon as the test will be done). Unfortunately for me one of my production nim was created by someone not very aware of AIX and … resources are not in /export/nim (I had to recreate my own nim because of that :-( )

On the client side ?

On the client side you just have nothing to do. If you’re using AIX 7.2 and nimhttp is enabled the client will automatically use http for communication (if it is enabled on the nim server). Just note that if you’re using nimhttp in secure mode, you must enable your nimclient in secure mode too:

# nimclient -c
Received 2788 Bytes in 0.0 Seconds
0513-044 The nimsh Subsystem was requested to stop.
0513-077 Subsystem has been changed.
0513-059 The nimsh Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 13500758.
# stopsrc -s nimsh
# startsrc -s nimsh

Changing nimhttp port

You can easily change the port on which nimhttp is listening by modify the /etc/services file. Here is an example with the port 443 (I know this is not a good idea to use this one but it’s just for the example)

#nimhttp                4901/tcp
#nimhttp                4901/udp
nimhttp         443/tcp
nimhttp         443/udp
# stopsrc -s nimhttp
# startsrc -s nimhttp -a "-c"
# netstat -Aan | grep 443
f1000e00047fb3b8 tcp4       0      0  *.443                 *.*                   LISTEN
# rmsock f1000e00047fb3b8 tcpcb
The socket 0xf1000e00047fb008 is being held by proccess 14811574 (nimhttpd).

Same on the client side, just change the /etc/services file and use your nimclient as usual

# grep nimhttp /etc/services
#nimhttp                4901/tcp
#nimhttp                4901/udp
nimhttp         443/tcp
nimhttp         443/udp
# nimclient -l

To be sure I’m not using nfs anymore I’m removing any entries in my /etc/export file. I know that it will just work for some case (some type of resources) as nimesis is filling the file even if this one is empty:

# > /etc/exports
# exportfs -uav
exportfs: 1831-184 unexported /export/nim/bosinst_data/golden-vios-2233-08192014-bosinst_data
exportfs: 1831-184 unexported /export/nim/spot/golden-vios-22422-05072016-spot/usr
exportfs: 1831-184 unexported /export/nim/spot/golden-vios-22410-22012015-spot/usr
exportfs: 1831-184 unexported /export/nim/mksysb
exportfs: 1831-184 unexported /export/nim/hmc
exportfs: 1831-184 unexported /export/nim/lpp_source
[..]

Let’s do this

Let’s now try this with a simple example. I’m here installing powervp on a machine using a cust operation from the nimclient, on the client I’m doing like I have always do running the exact same command as before. Super simple:

# nimclient -o cust -a lpp_source=powervp1100-lpp_source -a filesets=powervp.rte

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                    Pre-installation Verification...
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Verifying selections...done
Verifying requisites...done
Results...

SUCCESSES
---------
  Filesets listed in this section passed pre-installation verification
  and will be installed.

  Selected Filesets
  -----------------
  powervp.rte 1.1.0.0                         # PowerVP for AIX

  << End of Success Section >>

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                   BUILDDATE Verification ...
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Verifying build dates...done
FILESET STATISTICS
------------------
    1  Selected to be installed, of which:
        1  Passed pre-installation verification
  ----
    1  Total to be installed

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                         Installing Software...
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

installp: APPLYING software for:
        powervp.rte 1.1.0.0

0513-071 The syslet Subsystem has been added.
Finished processing all filesets.  (Total time:  4 secs).

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
                                Summaries:
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Installation Summary
--------------------
Name                        Level           Part        Event       Result
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
powervp.rte                 1.1.0.0         USR         APPLY       SUCCESS
powervp.rte                 1.1.0.0         ROOT        APPLY       SUCCESS

On the server side I’m checking the /var/adm/ras/nimhttp.log (log file for nimhttp) and I can check that files are transferred from the server to the client using the http protocol. So it works great.

# Thu Jul 21 23:44:19 2016        Request Type is GET
Thu Jul 21 23:44:19 2016        Mime not supported
Thu Jul 21 23:44:19 2016        Sending Response Header "200 OK"
Thu Jul 21 23:44:19 2016        Sending file over socket 6. Expected length is 600
Thu Jul 21 23:44:19 2016        Total length sent is 600
Thu Jul 21 23:44:19 2016        handle_httpGET: Entering cleanup statement
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        nim_http: queue socket create product (memory *)200739e8
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        nim_http: 200739e8 6 200947e8 20098138
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        nim_http: file descriptor is 6
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        nim_buffer: (resize) buffer size is 0
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        file descriptor is : 6
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        family is : 2 (AF_INET)
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        source address is : 10.14.33.253
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        socks: Removing socksObject 2ff1ec80
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        socks: 200739e8 132 <- 87 bytes (SSL)
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        nim_buffer: (append) len is 87, buffer length is 87
Thu Jul 21 23:44:20 2016        nim_http: data string passed to get_http_request: "GET /export/nim/lpp_source/powervp/powervp.1.1.0.0.bff HTTP/1.1

Let's do the same thing with a fileset coming from a bigger lpp_source (in fact an simage one for the latest release of AIX 7.2):

# nimclient -o cust -a lpp_source=7200-00-02-1614-lpp_source -a filesets=bos.loc.utf.en_KE
[..]

Looking on the nim server I notice that files are transfered from the server to the client, but NOT my fileset and it's dependencies .... but the whole lpp_source (seriously ? uh ? why ?)

# tail -f /var/adm/ras/nimhttp.log
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        Request Type is GET
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        Mime not supported
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        Sending Response Header "200 OK"
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        Sending file over socket 6. Expected length is 4482048
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        Total length sent is 4482048
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        handle_httpGET: Entering cleanup statement
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        nim_http: queue socket create product (memory *)200739e8
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        nim_http: 200739e8 6 200947e8 20098138
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        nim_http: file descriptor is 6
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        nim_buffer: (resize) buffer size is 0
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        file descriptor is : 6
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        family is : 2 (AF_INET)
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        source address is : 10.14.33.253
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        socks: Removing socksObject 2ff1ec80
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        socks: 200739e8 132 <- 106 bytes (SSL)
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        nim_buffer: (append) len is 106, buffer length is 106
Thu Jul 21 23:28:39 2016        nim_http: data string passed to get_http_request: "GET /export/nim/lpp_source/7200-00-02-1614/installp/ppc/X11.fnt.7.2.0.0.I HTTP/1.1

If you have a deeper look of what is nimclient doing when using nimhttp .... he is just transfering the whole lpp_source from the server to the client and then installing the needed fileset from a local filesystem. Filesets are storred into /tmp so be sure you have a /tmp bigger enough to store your biggest lpp_source. Maybe this will be changed in the future but it is like it is for the moment :-) . The nimclient is creating temporary directory named (prefix) "_nim_dir_" to store the lpp_source:

root@nim_server:/export/nim/lpp_source/7200-00-02-1614/installp/ppc# du -sm .
7179.57 .
root@nim_client:/tmp/_nim_dir_5964094/export/nim/lpp_source/7200-00-02-1614/installp/ppc# du -sm .
7179.74 .

More details ?

You can notice while running a cust operation from the nim client that nimhttp is also running in background (on the client itself). The truth is that the nimhttp binary running on client act as an http client. In the output below the http client is getting the file Java8_64.samples.jnlp.8.0.0.120.U and

# ps -ef |grep nim
    root  3342790 16253432   6 23:29:10  pts/0  0:00 /bin/ksh /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_installp -afilesets=bos.loc.utf.en_KE -alpp_source=s00va9932137:/export/nim/lpp_source/7200-00-02-1614
    root  6291880 13893926   0 23:29:10  pts/0  0:00 /bin/ksh /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_script -alocation=s00va9932137:/export/nim/scripts/s00va9954403.script
    root 12190194  3342790  11 23:30:06  pts/0  0:00 /usr/sbin/nimhttp -f /export/nim/lpp_source/7200-00-02-1614/installp/ppc/Java8_64.samples.jnlp.8.0.0.120.U -odest -s
    root 13500758  4325730   0 23:23:29      -  0:00 /usr/sbin/nimsh -s -c
    root 13893926 15991202   0 23:29:10  pts/0  0:00 /bin/ksh -c /var/adm/nim/15991202/nc.1469222947
    root 15991202 16974092   0 23:29:07  pts/0  0:00 nimclient -o cust -a lpp_source=7200-00-02-1614-lpp_source -a filesets=bos.loc.utf.en_KE
    root 16253432  6291880   0 23:29:10  pts/0  0:00 /bin/ksh /tmp/_nim_dir_6291880/script

You can use the nimhttp as a client to download file directly from the nim server. Here I'm just listing the content of /export/nim/lpp_source from the client

# nimhttp -f /export/nim/lpp_source -o dest=/tmp -v
nimhttp: (source)       /export/nim/lpp_source
nimhttp: (dest_dir)     /tmp
nimhttp: (verbose)      debug
nimhttp: (master_ip)    nimserver
nimhttp: (master_port)  4901

sending to master...
size= 59
pull_request= "GET /export/nim/lpp_source HTTP/1.1
Connection: close

"
Writing 1697 bytes of data to /tmp/export/nim/lpp_source/.content
Total size of datalen is 1697. Content_length size is 1697.
# cat /tmp/export/nim/lpp_source/.content
DIR: 71-04-02-1614 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7100-03-00-0000 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7100-03-01-1341 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7100-03-02-1412 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7100-03-03-1415 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7100-03-04-1441 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7100-03-05-1524 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7100-04-00-1543 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7100-04-01-1543 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7200-00-00-0000 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7200-00-01-1543 0:0 00240755 256
DIR: 7200-00-02-1614 0:0 00240755 256
FILE: MH01609.iso 0:0 00100644 1520027648
FILE: aixtools.python.2.7.11.4.I 0:0 00100644 50140160

Here I'm just downloading a python fileset !

# nimhttp -f /export/nim/lpp_source/aixtools.python.2.7.11.4.I -o dest=/tmp -v
[..]
Writing 65536 bytes of data to /tmp/export/nim/lpp_source/aixtools.python.2.7.11.4.I
Writing 69344 bytes of data to /tmp/export/nim/lpp_source/aixtools.python.2.7.11.4.I
Writing 7776 bytes of data to /tmp/export/nim/lpp_source/aixtools.python.2.7.11.4.I
Total size of datalen is 50140160. Content_length size is 50140160.
# ls -l /tmp/export/nim/lpp_source/aixtools.python.2.7.11.4.I
-rw-r--r--    1 root     system     50140160 Jul 23 01:21 /tmp/export/nim/lpp_source/aixtools.python.2.7.11.4.I

Allowed operation

All cust operations on nim objects type lpp_source, installp_bundle, fix_bundle, scripts, and file_res in push or pull are working great with nimhttp. Here are a few examples (from the official doc, thanks to Paul F for that ;-) ) :

  • Push:
  • # nim –o cust –a file_res=obj_name client_obj_name
    # nim –o cust –a script=obj_name client_obj_name
    # nim –o cust –a lpp_source=obj_name -a filesets=fileset names to install client_obj_name
    # nim –o cust –a lpp_source=obj_name -a installp_bundle=obj_name client_obj_name
    # nim –o cust –a lpp_source=obj_name ‐a fixes=update_all client_obj_name
    
  • Pull:
  • # nimclient -o cust -a lpp_source=obj_name -a filesets=fileset names to install
    # nimclient –o cust –a file_res=obj_name
    # nimclient –o cust –a script=obj_name nimclient –o cust –a lpp_source=obj_name -‐a filesets=fileset names to install
    # nimclient –o cust –a lpp_source=obj_name -a installp_bundle=obj_name
    # nimclient –o cust –a lpp_source=obj_name -a fixes=update
    

Proxying: use your own http server

You can use you own webserver to host nimhttp and the nimhttp binary will just act as a proxy between your client and you http server. I have tried to do it but didn't succeed with that I'll let you know if I'm finding the solution:

# grep ^proxt ~/httpd.conf
service.proxy_port=80
enable_proxy=yes

Conclusion: "about administration and post-installation"

Just a few words about best practices of post-installation and administration on AIX. On on the major purpose of this blog post is to prove to you than you need to get rid of an old way of working. The first thing to do is always to try using http or https instead of NFS. To give you an example of that I'm always using http to transfer my files whatever it is (configuration, product installation and so on ...). With an automation tool such as Chef it is so simple to integrate the download of a file from an http server that you must now avoid using NFS ;-) . Second good practice is to never install things "by hand" and using yum is one of the reflex you need to have instead of using the rpm command (Linux users will laugh reading that ... I'm laughing writing that, using yum is just something I'm doing for more than 10 years ... but for AIX admins it's still not the case and not so simple to understand :-) ). As always I hope it helps.

About blogging

I just wanted to say one word about blogging because I got a lot of questions about this (from friends, readers, managers, haters, lovers). I'm doing this for two reasons. The first one is that writing and explaining things force me to better understand what I'm doing and force me to always discover new features, new bugs, new everything. Second I'm doing this for you, for my readers because I remember how blogs were useful to me when I began AIX (Chris and Nigel are the best example of that). I don't care about being the best or the worst. I'm just me. I'm doing this because I love that that's all. Even if manager, recruiters or anybody else don't care about it I'll continue to do this whatever appends. I agree with them "It does not prove anything at all". I'm just like you a standard admin trying to do his job at his best. Sorry for the two months "break" about blogging but it was really crazy at work and in my life. Take care all. Haters gonna hate.

Continuous integration for your Chef AIX cookbooks (using PowerVC, Jenkins, test-kitchen and gitlab)

My Journey to integrate Chef on AIX is still going on and I’m working more than ever on these topics. I know that using such tools is not something widely adopted by AIX customers. But what I also know is that whatever happens you will in a near -or distant- future use an automation tool. These tools are so widely used in the Linux world that you just can’t ignore it. The way you were managing your AIX ten years ago is not the same as what you are doing today, and what you do today will not be what you’ll do in the future. The AIX world needs a facelift to survive, a huge step has already be done (and is still ongoing) with PowerVC thanks to a fantastic team composed by very smart people at IBM (@amarteyp; @drewthorst, @jwcroppe, and all the other persons in this team!) The AIX world is now compatible with Openstack and with this other things are coming … such as automation. When all of these things will be ready AIX we will be able to offer something comparable to Linux. Openstack and automation are the first brick to what we call today “devops” (to be more specific it’s the ops part of the devops word).

I will today focus on how to manage your AIX machines using Chef. By using the word “how” I mean what are the best practices and infrastructures to build to start using Chef on AIX. If you remember my session about Chef on AIX at the IBM Technical University in Cannes I was saying that by using Chef your infrastructure will be testable, repeatable, and versionnable. We will focus on this blog post on how to do that. To test your AIX Chef cookbooks you will need to understand what is the test kitchen (we will use the test kitchen to drive PowerVC to build virtual machines on the fly and run the chef recipes on it). To repeat this over and over to be sure everything is working (code review, be sure that your cookbook is converging) ok without having to do anything we will use Jenkins to automate these tests. Then to version your cookbooks development we will use gitlab.

To better understand why I’m doing such a thing there is nothing better than a concrete example. My goal is to do all my AIX post-installation tasks using Chef (motd configuration, dns, devices attributes, fileset installation, enabling services … everything that you are today doing using korn shells scripts). Who has never experienced someone changing one of these scripts (most of the time without warning the other members of the team) resulting in a syntax error then resulting in an outage for all your new builds. Doing this is possible if you are in a little team creating one machine per month but is inconceivable in an environment driven by PowerVC where sysadmin are not doing anything “by hand”. In such an environment if someone is doing this kind of error all the new builds are failing …. even worse you’ll probably not be aware of this until someone who is connecting on the machine will say that there is an error (most of the time the final customer). By using continuous integration your AIX build will be tested at every change, all this changes will be stored in a git repository and even better you will not be able to put a change in production without passing all these tests. Even if using this is just mandatory to do that for people using PowerVC today people who are not can still do the same thing. By doing that you’ll have a clean and proper AIX build (post-install) and no errors will be possible anymore, so I highly encourage you to do this even if you are not adopting the Openstack way or even if today you don’t see the benefits. In the future this effort will pay. Trust me.

The test-kitchen

What is the kitchen

The test-kitchen is a tool that allows you to run your AIX Chef cookbooks and recipes in a quick way without having to do manual task. During the development of your recipes if you don’t use the test kitchen you’ll have many tasks to do manually. Build a virtual machine, install the chef client, copy the cookbook and the recipes, run it, check everything is in the state that you want. Imagine doing that on different AIX version (6.1, 7.1, 7.2) everytime you are changing something in your post-installation recipes (I was doing that before and I can assure you that creating and destroy machine over and over and over is just a waste of time). The test kitchen is here to do the job for you. It will build the machine for you (using the PowerVC kitchen driver), install the chef-client (using an omnibus server), copy the content of your cookbook (the files), run a bunch of recipe (described in what we call suites) and then test it (using bats, or serverspec). You can configure your kitchen to test different kind of images (6.1, 7.1, 7.2) and differents suites (cookbooks, recipes) depending on the environment you want to test. By default the test kitchen is using a Linux tool called Vagrant to build your VM. Obsiouvly Vagrant is not able to build an AIX machine, that’s why we will use a modified version of the kitchen-openstack driver (modified by my self) called kitchen-powervc to build the virtual machines:

Installing the kitchen and the PowerVC driver

If you have an access to an enterprise proxy you can directly download and install the gem files from your host (in my case this is a Linux on Power … so Linux on Power is working great for this).

  • Install the test kitchen :
  • # gem install --http-proxy http://bcreau:mypasswd@proxy:8080 test-kitchen
    Successfully installed test-kitchen-1.7.2
    Parsing documentation for test-kitchen-1.7.2
    1 gem installed
    
  • Install kitchen-powervc :
  • # gem install --http-proxy http://bcreau:mypasswd@proxy:8080 kitchen-powervc
    Successfully installed kitchen-powervc-0.1.0
    Parsing documentation for kitchen-powervc-0.1.0
    1 gem installed
    
  • Install kitchen-openstack :
  • # gem install --http-proxy http://bcreau:mypasswd@proxy:8080 kitchen-openstack
    Successfully installed kitchen-openstack-3.0.0
    Fetching: fog-core-1.38.0.gem (100%)
    Successfully installed fog-core-1.38.0
    Fetching: fuzzyurl-0.8.0.gem (100%)
    Successfully installed fuzzyurl-0.8.0
    Parsing documentation for kitchen-openstack-3.0.0
    Installing ri documentation for kitchen-openstack-3.0.0
    Parsing documentation for fog-core-1.38.0
    Installing ri documentation for fog-core-1.38.0
    Parsing documentation for fuzzyurl-0.8.0
    Installing ri documentation for fuzzyurl-0.8.0
    3 gems installed
    

If you don’t have the access to an enterprise proxy you can still download the gems from home and install it on your work machine:

# gem install test-kitchen kitchen-powervc kitchen-openstack -i repo --no-ri --no-rdoc
# # copy the files (repo directory) on your destination machine
# gem install *.gem

Setup the kitchen (.kitchen.yml file)

The kitchen configuration file is the .kitchen.yml, when you’ll run the kitchen command, the kitchen will look at this file. You have to put it in the chef-repo (where the cookbook directory is, the kitchen will copy the file from the cookbook to the test machine that’s why it’s important to put this file at the root of the chef-repo.) This file is separated in different sections:

  • The driver section. In this section you will configure howto created virtual machines. In our case how to connect to PowerVC (credentials, region). You’ll also tell in this section which image you want to use (PowerVC images), which flavor (PowerVC template) and which network will be used at the VM creation (please note that you can put some driver_config in the platform section, to tell which image or which ip you want to use for each specific platform.:
    • name: the name of the driver (here powervc).
    • openstack*: the PowerVC url, user, password, region, domain.
    • image_ref: the name of the image (we will put this in driver_config in the platform section).
    • flavor_ref: the name of the PowerVC template used at the VM creation.
    • fixed_ip: the ip_address used for the virtual machine creation.
    • server_name_prefix: each vm created by the kitchen will be prefixed by this parameter.
    • network_ref: the name of the PowerVC vlan to be used at the machine creation.
    • public_key_path: The kitchen needs to connect to the machine with ssh, you need to provide the public key used.
    • private_key_path: Same but for the private key.
    • username: The ssh username (we will use root, but you can use another user and then tell the kitchen to use sudo)
    • user_data: The activation input used by cloud-init we will in this one put the public key to be sure you can access the machine without password (it’s the PowerVC activation input).
    • driver:
        name: powervc
        server_wait: 100
        openstack_username: "root"
        openstack_api_key: "root"
        openstack_auth_url: "https://mypowervc:5000/v3/auth/tokens"
        openstack_region: "RegionOne"
        openstack_project_domain: "Default"
        openstack_user_domain: "Default"
        openstack_project_name: "ibm-default"
        flavor_ref: "mytemplate"
        server_name_prefix: "chefkitchen"
        network_ref: "vlan666"
        public_key_path: "/home/chef/.ssh/id_dsa.pub"
        private_key_path: "/home/chef/.ssh/id_dsa"
        username: "root"
        user_data: userdata.txt
      
      #cloud-config
      ssh_authorized_keys:
        - ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAIVZx6Pic+FyUisoNrm6Znxd48DQ/YGNRgsed+fc+yL1BVESyTU5kqnupS8GXG2I0VPMWN7ZiPnbT1Fe2D[..]
      
  • The provisioner section: This section can be use to specify if you want to user chef-zero or chef-solo as a provisioner. You can also specify an omnibus url (use to download and install the chef-client at the machine creation time). In my case the omnibus url is a link to an http server “serving” a script (install.sh) installing the chef client fileset for AIX (more details later in the blog post). I’m also putting “sudo” to false as I’ll connect with the root user:
  • provisioner:
      name: chef_solo
      chef_omnibus_url: "http://myomnibusserver:8080/chefclient/install.sh"
      sudo: false
    
  • The platefrom section: The plateform section will describe each plateform that the test-kitchen can create (I’m putting here the image_ref and the fixed_ip for each plateform (AIX 6.1, AIX 7.1, AIX 7.2)
  • platforms:
      - name: aix72
        driver_config:
          image_ref: "kitchen-aix72"
          fixed_ip: "10.66.33.234"
      - name: aix71
        driver_config:
          image_ref: "kitchen-aix71"
          fixed_ip: "10.66.33.235"
      - name: aix61
        driver_config:
          image_ref: "kitchen-aix61"
          fixed_ip: "10.66.33.236"
    
  • The suite section: this section describe which cookbook and which recipes you want to run in the machines created by the test-kitchen. For the simplicity of this example I’m just running two recipe the first on called root_authorized_keys (creating the /root directory, changing the home directory of root and the putting a public key in the .ssh directory) and the second one call gem_source (we will check later in the post why I’m also calling this recipe):
  • suites:
      - name: aixcookbook
        run_list:
        - recipe[aix::root_authorized_keys]
        - recipe[aix::gem_source]
        attributes: { gem_source: { add_urls: [ "http://10.14.66.100:8808" ], delete_urls: [ "https://rubygems.org/" ] } }
    
  • The busser section: this section describe how to run you tests (more details later in the post ;-) ):
  • busser:
      sudo: false
    

After configuring the kitchen you can check the yml file is ok by listing what’s configured on the kitchen:

# kitchen list
Instance           Driver   Provisioner  Verifier  Transport  Last Action
aixcookbook-aix72  Powervc  ChefSolo     Busser    Ssh        
aixcookbook-aix71  Powervc  ChefSolo     Busser    Ssh        
aixcookbook-aix61  Powervc  ChefSolo     Busser    Ssh        

kitchen1
kitchen2

Anatomy of a kitchen run

A kitchen run is divided into five steps. At first we are creating a virtual machine (the create action), then we are installing the chef-client (using an omnibus url) and running some recipes (converge), then we are installing testing tools on the virtual machine (in my case serverspec) (setup) and we are running the tests (verify). Finally if everything was ok we are deleting the virtual machines (destroy). Instead of running all theses steps one by one you can use the “test” option. This one will do destroy,create,converge,setup,verify,destroy in on single “pass”. Let’s check in details each steps:

kitchen1

  • Create: This will create the virtual machine using PowerVC. If you choose to use the “fixed_ip” option in the .kitchen.yml file this ip will be choose at the machine creation time. If you prefer to pick an ip from the network (in the pool) don’t set the “fixed_ip”. You’ll see the details in the picture below. You can at the end test the connectivity (transport) (ssh) to the machine using “kitchen login”. The ssh public key was automatically added using the userdata.txt file used by cloud-init at the machine creation time. After the machine is created you can use the “kitchen list” command to check the machine was successfully created:
# kitchen create

kitchencreate3
kitchencreate1
kitchencreate2
kitchenlistcreate1

  • Converge: This will converge the kitchen (on more time converge = chef-client installation and running chef-solo with the suite configuration describing which recipe will be launched). The converge action will download the chef client and install it on the machine (using the omnibus url) and run the recipe specified in the suite stanza of the .kitchen.yml file. Here is the script I use for the omnibus installation this script is “served” by an http server:
  • # cat install.sh
    #!/usr/bin/ksh
    echo "[omnibus] [start] starting omnibus install"
    echo "[omnibus] downloading chef client http://chefomnibus:8080/chefclient/lastest"
    perl -le 'use LWP::Simple;getstore("http://chefomnibus:8080/chefclient/latest", "/tmp/chef.bff")'
    echo "[omnibus] installing chef client"
    installp -aXYgd /tmp/ chef
    echo "[omnibus] [end] ending omnibus install"
    
  • The http server is serving this install.sh file. Here is the httpd.conf configuration file for the omnibus installation on AIX:
  • # ls -l /apps/chef/chefclient
    total 647896
    -rw-r--r--    1 apache   apache     87033856 Dec 16 17:15 chef-12.1.2-1.powerpc.bff
    -rwxr-xr-x    1 apache   apache     91922944 Nov 25 00:24 chef-12.5.1-1.powerpc.bff
    -rw-------    2 apache   apache     76375040 Jan  6 11:23 chef-12.6.0-1.powerpc.bff
    -rwxr-xr-x    1 apache   apache          364 Apr 15 10:23 install.sh
    -rw-------    2 apache   apache     76375040 Jan  6 11:23 latest
    # cat httpd.conf
    [..]
         Alias /chefclient/ "/apps/chef/chefclient/"
         
             Options Indexes FollowSymlinks MultiViews
           AllowOverride None
           Require all granted
         
    
# kitchen converge

kitchenconverge1
kitchenconverge2b
kitchenlistconverge1

  • Setup and verify: these actions will run a bunch of tests to verify the machine is in the state you want. The test I am writing are checking that the root home directory was created and the key was successfully created in the .ssh directory. In a few words you need to write tests checking that your recipes are working well (in chef words: “check that the machine is in the correct state”). In my case I’m using serverspec to describe my tests (there are different tools using for testing, you can also use bats). To describe the tests suite just create serverspec files (describing the tests) in the chef-repo directory (in ~/test/integration//serverspec in my case ~/test/integration/aixcookbook/serverspec). All the serverspec test files are suffixed by _spec:
  • # ls test/integration/aixcookbook/serverspec/
    root_authorized_keys_spec.rb  spec_helper.rb
    
  • The “_spec” file describe the tests that will be run by the kitchen. In my very simple tests here I’m just checking my files exists and the content of the public_key is the same as my public_key (the key created by cloud-init in AIX is located in ~/.ssh and my test recipe here is changing the root home directory and putting the key in the right place). By looking at the file you can see that the serverspec language is very simple to understand:
  • # ls test/integration/aixcookbook/serverspec/
    root_authorized_keys_spec.rb  spec_helper.rb
    
    # cat spec_helper.rb
    require 'serverspec'
    set :backend, :exec
    # cat root_authorized_keys_spec.rb
    require 'spec_helper'
    
    describe file('/root/.ssh') do
      it { should exist }
      it { should be_directory }
      it { should be_owned_by 'root' }
    end
    
    describe file('/root/.ssh/authorized_keys') do
      it { should exist }
      it { should be_owned_by 'root' }
      it { should contain 'from="1[..]" ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1[..]' }
    end
    
  • The kitchen will try to install needed ruby gems for serverspec (serverspec needs to be installed on the server to run the automated test). As my server has no connectivity to the internet I need to run my own gem server. I’m lucky all the gem needed are installed on my chef workstation (if you have no internet access from the workstation use the tip described at the beginning of this blog post). I just need to run a local gem server by running “gem server” on the chef workstation. The server is listening on port 8808 and will serve all the needed gems:
  • # gem list | grep -E "busser|serverspec"
    busser (0.7.1)
    busser-bats (0.3.0)
    busser-serverspec (0.5.9)
    serverspec (2.31.1)
    # gem server
    Server started at http://0.0.0.0:8808
    
  • If you look on the output above you can see that the recipe gem_server was executed. This recipe change the gem source on the virtual machine (from https://rubygems.org to my own local server). In the .kitchen.yml file the urls to add and remove to the gem source are specified in the suite attributes:
  • # cat gem_source.rb
    ruby_block 'Changing gem source' do
      block do
        node['gem_source']['add_urls'].each do |url|
          current_sources = Mixlib::ShellOut.new('/opt/chef/embedded/bin/gem source')
          current_sources.run_command
          next if current_sources.stdout.include?(url)
          add = Mixlib::ShellOut.new("/opt/chef/embedded/bin/gem source --add #{url}")
          add.run_command
          Chef::Application.fatal!("Adding gem source #{url} failed #{add.status}") unless add.status == 0
          Chef::Log.info("Add gem source #{url}")
        end
    
        node['gem_source']['delete_urls'].each do |url|
          current_sources = Mixlib::ShellOut.new('/opt/chef/embedded/bin/gem source')
          current_sources.run_command
          next unless current_sources.stdout.include?(url)
          del = Mixlib::ShellOut.new("/opt/chef/embedded/bin/gem source --remove #{url}")
          del.run_command
          Chef::Application.fatal!("Removing gem source #{url} failed #{del.status}") unless del.status == 0
          Chef::Log.info("Remove gem source #{url}")
        end
      end
      action :run
    end
    
# kitchen setup
# kitchen verify

kitchensetupeverify1
kitchenlistverfied1

  • Destroy: This will destroy the virtual machine on PowerVC.
# kitchen destroy

kitchendestroy1
kitchendestroy2
kitchenlistdestroy1

Now that you understand how the kitchen is working and that you are now able to run it to create and test AIX machines you are ready to use the kitchen to develop and create the chef cookbook that will fit your infrastructure. To run the all the steps “create,converge,setup,verify,destroy”, just use the “kitchen test” command:

# kitchen test

As you are going to change a lot of things in your cookbook you’ll need to version the code you are creating, for this we will use a gitlab server.

Gitlab: version your AIX cookbook

Unfortunately for you and for me I didn’t had the time to run gitlab on a Linux on Power machine. I’m sure it is possible (if you find a way to do this please mail me). Anyway my version of gitlab is running on an x86 box. The goal here is to allow the chef workstation (in my environment this user is “chef”) user to push all the new developments (providers, recipes) to the git development branch for this we will:

  • Allow the chef user to push its source to the git server trough ssh (we are creating a chefworkstation user and adding the key to authorize this user to push the changes to the git repository with ssh).
  • gitlabchefworkst

  • Create a new repository called aix-cookbook.
  • createrepo

  • Push your current work to the master branch. The master branch will be the production branch.
  • # git config --global user.name "chefworkstation"
    # git config --global user.email "chef@myworkstation.chmod666.org"
    # git init
    # git add -A .
    # git commit -m "first commit"
    # git remote add origin git@gitlabserver:chefworkstation/aix-cookbook.git
    # git push origin master
    

    masterbranch

  • Create a development branch (you’ll need to push all your new development to this branch, and you’ll never have to do anything else on the master branch as Jenkins is going to do the job for us.
  • # git checkout -b dev
    # git commit -a
    # git push origin dev
    

    devbranch

The git server is ready: we have a repository accessible by the chef user. Two branch created the dev one (the one we are working on used for all our development) and the master branch used for production that will be never touched by us and will be only updated (by jenkins) if all the tests (foodcritic, rubocop and the test-kitchen) are ok

Automating the continous integration with Jenkins

What is Jenkins

The goal of Jenkins is to automate all tests and run them over and over again every time a change is applied onto the cookbook you are developing. By using Jenkins you will be sure that every change will be tested and you will never push something that is not working or not passing the tests you have defined in your production environment. To be sure the cookbook is working as desired we will use three different tools. foodcritic will check the will check your chef cookbook for common problems by checking rules that are defined within the tools (this rules will check that everything is ok for the chef execution, so you will be sure that there is no syntax error, and that all the coding convention will be respected), rubocop will check the ruby syntax, and then we will run a kitchen test to be sure that the developement branch is working with the kitchen and that all our serverspec tests are ok. Jenkins will automate the following steps:

  1. Pull the dev branch from git server (gitlab) if anything has changed on this branch.
  2. Run foodcritic on the code.
  3. If foodcritic tests are ok this will trigger the next step.
  4. Pull the dev branch again
  5. Run rubocop on the code.
  6. If rubocop tests are ok this will trigger the next step.
  7. Run the test-kitchen
  8. This will build a new machine on PowerVC and test the cookbook against it (kitchen test).
  9. If the test kitchen is ok push the dev branch to the master branch.
  10. You are ready for production :-)

kitchen2

First: Foodcritic

The first test we are running is foodcritic. Better than trying to do my own explanation of this with my weird english I prefer to quote the chef website:

Foodcritic is a static linting tool that analyzes all of the Ruby code that is authored in a cookbook against a number of rules, and then returns a list of violations. Because Foodcritic is a static linting tool, using it is fast. The code in a cookbook is read, broken down, and then compared to Foodcritic rules. The code is not run (a chef-client run does not occur). Foodcritic does not validate the intention of a recipe, rather it evaluates the structure of the code, and helps enforce specific behavior, detect portability of recipes, identify potential run-time failures, and spot common anti-patterns.

# foodcritic -f correctness ./cookbooks/
FC014: Consider extracting long ruby_block to library: ./cookbooks/aix/recipes/gem_source.rb:1

In Jenkins here are the steps to create a foodcritic test:

  • Pull dev branch from gitlab:
  • food1

  • Check for changes (the Jenkins test will be triggered only if there was a change in the git repository):
  • food2

  • Run foodcritic
  • food3

  • After the build parse the code (to archive and record the evolution of the foodcritic errors) and run the rubocop project if the build is stable (passed without any errors):
  • food4

  • To configure the parser go in the Jenkins configuration and add the foodcritic compiler warnings:
  • food5

Second: Rubocop

The second test we are running is rubocop it’s a Ruby static code analyzer, based on the community Ruby style guide. Here is an example below

# rubocop .
Inspecting 71 files
..CCCCWWCWC.WC..CC........C.....CC.........C.C.....C..................C

Offenses:

cookbooks/aix/providers/fixes.rb:31:1: C: Assignment Branch Condition size for load_current_resource is too high. [20.15/15]
def load_current_resource
^^^
cookbooks/aix/providers/fixes.rb:31:1: C: Method has too many lines. [19/10]
def load_current_resource ...
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
cookbooks/aix/providers/sysdump.rb:11:1: C: Assignment Branch Condition size for load_current_resource is too high. [25.16/15]
def load_current_resource

In Jenkins here are the steps to create a rubocop test:

  • Do the same thing as foodcritic except for the build and post-build action steps:
  • Run rubocop:
  • rubo1

  • After the build parse the code and run the test-kitchen project even if the build is fails (rubocop will generate tons of things to correct … once you are ok with rubocop change this to “trigger only if the build is stable”) :
  • rubo2

Third: test-kitchen

I don’t have to explain again what is the test-kitchen ;-) . It is the third test we are creating with Jenkins and if this one is ok we are pushing the changes in production:

  • Do the same thing as foodcritic except for the build and post-build action steps:
  • Run the test-kitchen:
  • kitchen1

  • If the test kitchen is ok push dev branch to master branch (dev to production):
  • kitchen3

More about Jenkins

The three tests are now linked together. On the Jenkins home page you can check the current state of your tests. Here are a couple of screenshots:

meteo
timeline

Conclusion

I know that for most of you working this way is something totally new. As AIX sysadmins we are used to our ksh and bash scripts and we like the way it is today. But as the world is changing and as you are going to manage more and more machines with less and less admins you will understand how powerful it is to use automation and how powerful it is to work in a “continuous integration” way. Even if you don’t like this “concept” or this new work habit … give it a try and you’ll see that working this way is worth the effort. First for you … you’ll discover a lot of new interesting things, second for your boss that will discover that working this way is safer and more productive. Trust me AIX needs to face Linux today and we are not going anywhere without having a proper fight versus the Linux guys :-) (yep it’s a joke).

IBM Technical University for PowerSystems 2015 – Cannes (both sessions files included)

I’m traveling the world since my first IBM Technical University for PowerSystems in Dublin (4 years ago as far as I remember). I had the chance to be in Budapest last year and in Cannes this year (a little bit less funny for a French guy than Dublin and Budapest) but in a different way. I had this year the opportunity to be a speaker for two sessions (and two repeats) thanks to the kindness of Alex Abderrazag (thank you for trusting me Alex). My first plan was to go to Tokyo for the Openstack summit to talk about PowerVC but unfortunately for me I was not able to make it because of confidentiality issues I had with my current company (the goal here was to be a customer reference for PowerVC). I didn’t realized that creating two sessions from scratch on two topics which are pretty new would have been so hard for me. I thought it would take me a couple of hours for each one but it took me so many hours for each one that I now have to be impressed by people who are doing this as their daily job ;-) . Something that took me even more hours than creating the slides is the preparation of these two sessions (Speaker notes, practicing (special thanks here to the people who helped me to practice the sessions especially the fantastic Bill Miller ;-) ) and so on …). One last thing I didn’t realized is that you have to manage your stress. As it was my first time in a such a big event I can assure you that I was super stressed. One funny thing about the stress is that I didn’t have any stress anymore just one hour before the session. Before that moment I had to find solution to deal with the stress … and I just realized that I wasn’t stress because of the sessions but because I had to speak English in front of so much people (super tricky thing to do for a shy french guy, trust me !). My first sessions (on both topics) were full (no more chairs available in the room) and the repeat were ok too, so I think it was ok and I think I was not so bad at it ;-) .

IMG_20151104_233030

I wanted here to thanks all the people who helped me to do this. Philippe Hermes (best pre-sales in France ;-) ) for believing in me and helping me to do that (re-reading my Powerpoint, and taking care of me during the event). Alex Abderrazag for allowing me to do that. Nigel Griffiths for re-reading the PowerVC session and giving me a couple of tips and tricks about being a speaker. Bill Miller and Alain Lechevalier for the rehearsal of both sessions and finally Rosa Davidson (she gave me the envy to do that). I’m not forgetting Jay Kruemcke who gave me some IBM shirts to do these sessions (and also for a lot of other things). Sorry for those whom I may have forgotten.

Many people asked me to share my Powerpoint files, you will find both files below in this post, here are the two presentations:

  • PowerVC for PowerVM deep dive – Tips & Tricks.
  • Using Chef Automation on AIX.

PowerVC for PowerVM deep dive – Tips & Tricks

This session is for PowerVC advanced users. You’ll find a lot of tips and tricks allowing you to customize your PowerVC. More than a couple of tips and tricks you’ll also find in this session how PowerVC works (images, activation, cloud-init, and so on). If you are not a PowerVC user this session can be a little bit difficult for you. But these tips and tricks are the lessons I learned from the field using PowerVC in a production environment:

Using Chef Automation on AIX

This session will give you all the basis to understand what is Chef and what you can do with this tool. You’ll also find examples on how to update service pack and technology level on AIX using Chef. Good examples about using Chef for post installation tasks and how to use it with PowerVC are also provided in this session.

Conclusion

I hope you enjoyed the session if you were at Cannes this year. On my side I really enjoyed doing that, it was a very good experience for me. I hope I’ll have the opportunity to do that again. Feel free to tell my if want to see me in future technical events like these one. The next step is now to do something at Edge … not so sure this dream will come true any time ;-) .

Updating AIX TL and SP using Chef

Creating something to automate the update of a service pack or a technology level has always been a dream that never come true. You can trust me almost every customers that I know tried to make that dream come true. Different customers, same story everywhere. They tried to do something and then tripped up in a miserable way. A fact that is always true in those stories is that the decision of doing that is always taken by someone that do not understand that AIX cannot be managed like a workstation or any other OS (who said windows). A good example of that is an IBM (and you know that I’m an IBM fan) tool call BigFix/TEM (for Tivoli Endpoint Manager): I’m not an expert about TEM (so maybe I am wrong) but you can use this one to update your Windows OS, your Linux, your AIX and even your Iphones or Android devices. LET ME LAUGH! How can it be possible that someone think about this: updating an Iphone the same way as you update an AIX. A good joke! (To be clear I am always and will always support IBM but my role is also to say what I think). Another good example is the utilization of IBM Systems Director (unfortunately … or fortunately this one has been withdrawn since a couple of days). I tried this one myself a few years ago (you can check this post). System Director was (in my humble opinion) the least worst solution to update an AIX or a Virtual I/O Server in a automated way. So how are we going to do this in a world that is always asking to do more with less people ?. I had to find a solution a few months ago to update more than 700 hosts from AIX 6.1 to AIX 7.1, the job was to create something that anybody can launch without knowing anything about AIX (one more time who can even think this is possible ?). I tried to do things like writing scripts to automate nimadm and I’m pretty happy with this solution (almost 80% were ok without any errors, but there were tons of prerequisites before launching the scripts and we faced some problems that were inevitable (nimsh error, sendmail configuration, broken filesets) forcing the AIX L3 team to fix tons of migrations). As everybody knows now I’m working on Chef since a few months and this can be the solution to what our world is asking today : replacing hundred of peoples by a single man launching a magical thing that can do everything without knowing anything about anything and save money! This is obviously ironical but unfortunately this is the reality of what happends today in France. “Money” and “resource” rules everything without having any plans about the future (to be clear I’m here talking about a generality, nothing here can reflect what’s going on in my place). It is like it is and as a good soldier I’m going to give you solutions to face the reality of this harsh world. But now it’s action time ! I don’t want to be too pessimistic but this is unfortunately the reality of what is happening today and my anger about that only reflects the fact that I’m living in fear, the fear of becoming bad or the fear of doing a job I really don’t like. I think I have to find a solution about this problem. The picture below is clear enough to give you a good a example of what I’m trying to do with Chef.

CF8j9_dWgAAOuyC

How do we update machines

I’m not here to teach you how to update a service pack or a technology level (I’m sure everybody know that) but in an automated way we need to talk about the method and identify each needed steps to perform an update. As there is always one more way to do it I have identified three ways to update a machine (the multibos way, the nimclient way and finally the alt_disk_copy way). To be able to update using Chef we obviously need to have an available provider for each method (you can do this with the execute resource, but we’re here to have fun and to learn some new things). So we need one provider capable of managing multibos, one capable of managing nimclient, and one capable of managing alt_disk_copy. All of these three providers are available now and can be used to write different recipes doing what is necessary to update a machine. Obviously there are pre-update and post-update steps needed (removing efixes, checking filesets). Let’s identify the step required first:

  • Verify with lppchk the consistency of all installed packages.
  • Remove any installed efixes (using emgr provider)
  • The multibos way:
    • You don’t need to create a backup of the rootvg using the multibos way.
    • Mount the SP or TL directory from the NIM server (using Chef mount resource).
    • Create the multibos instance and update using the remote mounted directory (using multibos resource).
  • The nimclient way:
    • Create a backup of your rootvg (using the altdisk resource).
    • Use nimclient to run a cust operation (using niminit,nimclient resource).
  • The alt_disk_copy way:
    • You don’t new to create a backup of the rootvg using the alt_disk_copy way.
    • Mount the SP or TL directory from the NIM server (using Chef mount).
    • Create the altinst_rootvg volume group and update it using the remote mounted directory (using altdisk provider).
  • Reboot the machine.
  • Remove any unwanted bos, old_rootvg.

Reminder where to download the AIX Chef cookbook:

Before trying to do all these steps in a single way let’s try to use the resources one by one to understand what each one is doing.

Fixes installation

This one is simple and allows you to install or remove fixes from your AIX machine, in the example below we are going to show how to do that with two Chef recipes: one for installing and the other one for removing! Super easy.

Installing fixes

In the recipe provides all the fixes name in an array and specify the name of the directory in which the filesets are (this can be an NFS mount point if you want to). Please note here that I’m using the cookbook_file resource to download the fixes, this resource allows you to download a file directly from the cookbook (so from the Chef server). Imagine using this single recipe to install a fix on all your machines. Quite easy ;-)

directory "/var/tmp/fixes" do
  action :create
end

cookbook_file "/var/tmp/fixes/IV75031s5a.150716.71TL03SP05.epkg.Z" do
  source 'IV75031s5a.150716.71TL03SP05.epkg.Z'
  action :create
end

cookbook_file "/var/tmp/fixes/IV77596s5a.150930.71TL03SP05.epkg.Z" do
  source 'IV77596s5a.150930.71TL03SP05.epkg.Z'
  action :create
end

aix_fixes "installing fixes" do
  fixes ["IV75031s5a.150716.71TL03SP05.epkg.Z", "IV77596s5a.150930.71TL03SP05.epkg.Z"]
  directory "/var/tmp/fixes"
  action :install
end

directory "/var/tmp/fixes" do
  recursive true
  action :delete
end

emgr1

Removing fixes

The recipe is almost the same but with the remove action instead of the install action. Please note that you can specify which fixes to remove or use the keyword all to remove all the installed fixes (in the case of our recipe to update our servers we will use “all” as we want to remove all fixes before trying launch the update).

aix_fixes "remove fixes IV75031s5a and IV77596s5a" do
  fixes ["IV75031s5a", "IV77596s5a]
  action :remove
end
aix_fixes "remove all fixes" do
  fixes ["all"]
end

emgr2

Alternate disks

In most AIX places I have seen the solution to backup your system before doing anything is to create an alternate disk using the alt_disk_copy command. Sometimes in some places where sysadmins love their job this disk is updated on the go to do a TL or SP upgrade. The altdisk resource I’ve coded for Chef take care of this. I’ll not detail with examples every actions available and will focus on create and cust:

  • create: This action create an alternate disk we will detail the attributes in the next section.
  • cleanup: Cleanup the alternate disk (remove it).
  • rename: Rename the alternate disk.
  • sleep: Put the alternate disk in sleep (umount every /alt_inst/* filesystem and varyoff the volume group)
  • wakeup: Wake up the alternate disk (varyon the volume group and mount every filesystems)
  • customize: Run a cust operation (the current resource is coded to use a directory to update the alternate disk with all the filesets present in a directory).

Creation

The alternate disk create action create an alternate disk an helps you to find an available disk for this creation. In any cases only free disks will be choosen (disks with no PVID and no volume group defined). Different types are available to choose the disk on which the alternate disk will be created:

  • Size: If type is size a disk by the exact same size of the value attribute will be used.
  • Name: If type is name a disk by the name of the value attribute will be used.
  • Auto: In auto mode available values for value are bigger and equals. If bigger is choose the first disk found with a size bigger than the current rootvg size will be used. If equals is choose the first disk found with a size equals to the current rootvg size is used.
aix_altdisk "cloning rootvg by name" do
  type :name
  value "hdisk3"
  action :create
end
aix_altdisk "cloning rootvg by size 66560" do
  type :size
  value "66560"
end
aix_altdisk "removing old alternates" do
  action :cleanup
end

aix_altdisk "cloning rootvg" do
  type :auto
  value "bigger"
  action :create
end

altdisk1

Customization

The customization action will update the previously created alternate disk with the filesets presents in an NFS mounted directory (from the NIM server). Please note in the recipe below that we are mounting the directory from NFS. The node[:nim_server] is an attribute of the node telling which nim server will be mounted. For instance you can define a nim server used for production environment and a nim server used for development environment.

# mounting /mnt
mount "/mnt" do
  device '#{node[:nim_server]}:/export/nim/lpp_source'
  fstype 'nfs'
  action :mount
end

# updating the current disk
aix_altdisk "altdisk_update" do
  image_location "/mnt/7100-03-05-1524"
  action :customize
end

mount "/mnt" do
  action :umount
end

altdisk_cust

niminit/nimclient

The niminit and nimclient resources are used to register the nimclient to the nim master and then run a nimclient operation from the client. In my humble opinion this is the best way to do the update at the time of writing this blog post. One cool thing is that you can specify on which adapter the nimclient will be configured by using some ohai attributes. It’s an elegant way to do that, one more time this is showing you the power of Chef ;-) . Let’s start with some examples:

niminit

aix_niminit node[:hostname] do
  action :remove
end

aix_niminit node[:hostname] do 
  master "nimcloud"
  connect "nimsh"
  pif_name node[:network][:default_interface]
  action :setup
end

nimclient1

nimclient

nimclient can first be used to install some filesets you may need. The provider is intelligent and can choose the good lpp_source for you. Please note that you will need lpp_source with a specific naming convention if you want to use this feature. To find the next/latest available sp/tl the provider is checking the current oslevel of the current machine and compare it with the available lpp_source present on you nim server. The naming convention needed is $(oslevel s)-lpp_source (ie. 7100-03-05-1524-lpp_source) (same principle is applicable to the spot when you need to use spot)

$ lsnim -t lpp_source | grep 7100
7100-03-00-0000-lpp_source             resources       lpp_source
7100-03-01-1341-lpp_source             resources       lpp_source
7100-03-02-1412-lpp_source             resources       lpp_source
7100-03-03-1415-lpp_source             resources       lpp_source
7100-03-04-1441-lpp_source             resources       lpp_source
7100-03-05-1524-lpp_source             resources       lpp_source

If your nim resources name are ok the lpp_source attribute can be:

  • latest_sp: the latest available service pack.
  • next_sp: the next available service.
  • latest_tl: the latest available technology level.
  • next_tl: the next available techonlogy level.
  • If you do not want to do this you can still specify the name of the lpp_source by hand.

Here are a few example to install packages

aix_nimclient "installing filesets" do
  installp_flags "aXYg"
  lpp_source "7100-03-04-1441-lpp_source"
  filesets ["openssh.base.client","openssh.base.server","openssh.license"]
  action :cust
end

aix_nimclient "installing filesets" do
  installp_flags "aXYg"
  lpp_source "7100-03-04-1441-lpp_source"
  filesets ["bos.compat.cmds", "bos.compat.libs"]
  action :cust
end

aix_nimclient "installing filesets" do
  installp_flags "aXYg"
  lpp_source "7100-03-04-1441-lpp_source"
  filesets ["Java6_64.samples"]
  action :cust
end

nimclient2

Please note that some filesets were already installed and the resource did not converge because of that ;-) . Let’s now try to update to the latest service pack:

aix_nimclient "updating to latest sp" do
  installp_flags "aXYg"
  lpp_source "latest_sp"
  fixes "update_all"
  action :cust
end

nimclient3

Tadam the machine was updated from 7100-03-04-1441 to 7100-03-05-1524 using a single a recipe and without knowing which service pack was available to update!

multibos

I really like the multibos way and I don’t know why today so few peoples are using it, anyway, I know some customers who are only working this way so I thought it was worth it working on a multibos resource. Here is a nice recipe creating a bos and updating it.

# creating dir for mount
directory "/var/tmp/mnt" do
  action :create
end

# mounting /mnt
mount "/var/tmp/mnt" do
  device "#{node[:nim_server]}:/export/nim/lpp_source"
  fstype 'nfs'
  action :mount
end

# removing standby multibos
aix_multibos "removing standby bos" do
  action :remove
end

# create multibos and updateit
aix_multibos "creating bos " do
  action :create
end

aix_multibos "update bos" do
  update_device "/var/tmp/mnt/7100-03-05-1524"
  action :update
end

# unmount /mnt
mount "/var/tmp/mnt" do
  action :umount
end

# deleting temp directory
directory "/var/tmp/mnt" do
  action :delete
end

multibos1
multibos2

Full recipes for updates

Let’s now write a big recipe doing all the things we need for an update. Remember that if one resource is failing the recipe stop by itself. For instance you’ll see in the recipe below that I’m doing an “lppchk -vm3″. If it returns something other than 0, the resources fail and the recipe fail. It’s obviously a normal behavior, it’s seems ok not to continue if there is a problem. So to sum up here are all the steps this recipe is doing: check fileset consistency, removing all fixes, committing filesets, creating an alternate disk, configuring the nimclient, running the update, deallocating resources

# if lppchk -vm return code is different
# than zero recipe will fail
# no guard needed here
execute "lppchk" do
  command 'lppchk -vm3'
end

# removing any efixes
aix_fixes "remvoving_efixes" do
  fixes ["all"]
  action :remove
end

# committing filesets
# no guard needed here
execute 'commit' do
  command 'installp -c all'
end

# cleaning exsiting altdisk
aix_altdisk "cleanup alternate rootvg" do
  action :cleanup
end

# creating an alternate disk using the
# first disk bigger than the actual rootvg
# bootlist to false as this disk is just a backup copy
aix_altdisk "altdisk_by_auto" do
  type :auto
  value "bigger"
  change_bootlist true
  action :create
end

# nimclient configuration
aix_niminit node[:hostname] do
  master "nimcloud"
  connect "nimsh"
  pif_name "en1"
  action :setup
end

# update to latest available tl/sp
aix_nimclient "updating to latest sp" do
  installp_flags "aXYg"
  lpp_source "latest_sp"
  fixes "update_all"
  action :cust
end

# dealloacate resource
aix_nimclient "deallocating resources" do
  action :deallocate
end

How about a single point of management “knife ssh”, “pushjobs”

Chef is and was designed on a pull model, it means that the client is asking to server to get the recipes and cookbooks and then execute them. This is the role of the chef-client. In a Linux environment, people are often running the client in demonized mode, it means that the client is waking up on a time interval basis and is executed (then every change to the cookbooks are run by the client). I’m almost sure that every AIX shop will be against this method because this one is dangerous. If you are doing that run the change first in test environment, then in dev, and finally in production. To be honest this is not the model I want to build where I am working. We want for some actions (like updates) a push model. By default Chef is delivered with a feature called push jobs. Push jobs is a way to run jobs like “execute the chef-client” from your knife workstation, unfortunately push jobs needs plugin to the chef-client and this one is only available on Linux OS …. not yet one AIX. Anyway we have an alternative, this one is the ssh knife plugin. This plugin that is in knife by default allows you to run commands on the nodes with ssh. Even better if you already have an ssh gateway with key sharing enabled knife ssh can use this gateway to communicate with the clients. Using knife ssh you’ll have the possibility to say “run chef-client on all my AIX 6.1 nodes” or “run this recipes installing this fix on all my AIX 7.1 nodes”, possibilities are infinite. Last note about knife ssh. This one is creating tunnels through your ssh gateway to communicate with the node, so if you use a shared key you have to copy the private key on the knife workstation (it tooks me time to understand that). Here are somes exmples:

knifessh

  • On two nodes check the current os level:
  • ssh1

  • Run the update with Chef:
  • update3

  • Alternates disk have been created:
  • update4

  • Both systems are up to date:
  • update5

Conclusion

I think this blog post helped you to better understand Chef and what is Chef capable of. We are still on the very beginning of the Chef cookbook and I’m sure plenty of new things (recipes, providers) will come in the next few months. Try it by yourself and I’m sure you’ll like the way it work. I must admit that it is difficult to learn and to start but if you are doing this right you’ll get the benefit of an automation tool working on AIX … and honestly AIX needs an automation tool. I’m almost sure it will be Chef (in fact we have no other choice). Help us to write postinstall recipes, updates recipes and any other recipes you can think about. We need your help and it is happening now! You have the opportunity to be a part of this, a part of something new that will help AIX in the future. We don’t want a dying os, Chef will give AIX the opportunity to be an OS with a fully working automation tool. Go give it a try now!